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IGCSE Physics-Revision
Heat
Temperature: measurement of hotness of a body. Measured in Kelvin or Celsius.

Thermal capacity (s.h.c): The heat energy needed to raise the body by one degree (Units J°C¯¹)

To find the amount of heat to raise a body: H=m x c (-)
E.g. How much heat is…

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Forces and motion


Force is something that tries to change the shape, speed and direction of an object
UNITS: Newtons
Shown as a diagram of a proportional arrow

Generally: Force=mass x acceleration (Newton's 2nd law)

So: acceleration= force ÷ mass

Work is how much energy was used in the movement…

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Liquid pressure=height x density x gravity

Circuits
A battery is a source of electric current



Ammeter to measure flow of current Volt metre to measure energy change

Current is the flow of electrical charge. The charge is measures in coulombs

Q=It (Charge=current x time)
Electromotive force (E.M.F) - This is…

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R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 Then use V=IR to find current in b

The potential divider- this is the output voltage in a section of a linear circuit.

(Vin=power supply/Vout=potential divider)
R1=7
R2=6
Vin=12
V (out) V (in)×6
R2) V (out) =
R2
V (in) = (R1+ 13

V (out) = 72
13 =…

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Wave Motion


A wave is a movement of a DISTURBANCE through a source, such as water...
This movement is a transfer of energy from a source to a surrounding area...

Waves can be split into two groups...

Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Waves
Water Radio
Sound Radar
Waves on springs Infra-red
Waves…

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Transverse and longitudinal waves

Transverse wave ­ all the particles vibrate at a right angle to the direction. Each particle is slightly
out of step with the next. There is no overall movement

Eg, Water waves

Longitudinal waves ­ all particles vibrate in the same direction of which the wave…

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Electronics

The diode ­ this is a rectifier which works on half
wave rectification.




A full-wave rectifier ­ this converts an AC to a DC




A light dependant resistor (L.D.R) ­ this uses light to determine the amount of resistance
As light intensity increases, the resistance decreases.

A transistor these…

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Magnetic fields due to electric currents


A single wire with a current will give off a magnetic field




A solenoid is a coil which is wound on a cylinder. It
has a magnetic field like a bar magnet but the field
flows inside the solenoid.




Fleming's left hand rule will…

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Fleming's right hand rule is used to find induction in a straight wire




EQUATIONS FOR
RESITORS

1.




Vs÷VP=Ns÷Np ­ V=volts carried
N= number of turns

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