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Physics ­ Atomic structure, Ionising radiation, Half-life, radiation safety and nuclear radiation

Atomic structure

The Rutherford scattering experiment

John Dalton, in 1804, thought that matter was made up of time spheres, `atoms,' that couldn't be broken up
­ but he reckoned that each element was made up of a different…

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Radiation from man ­made sources e.g. fallout from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear accidents or
dumped nuclear waste

Ionising Radiation

Alpha particles are helium nuclei

An alpha particle is two neutrons and two protons ­ the same as a helium nucleus
They are relatively big and heavy and slow moving

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o The Nuclear and Uranium miners get 10 times as much radiation as the average person ­ they have
special suits
o Radiographers (X- ray people) ­ they wear lead aprons and stand behind lead screens to protect
o Cabin crew and flight crew ­ they have more exposure…

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o Unfortunately they do kill some normal cells which can be quite damaging to the patient (that's why
it is considered slightly risky)
Sterilization of food and surgical instruments
o Uses gamma rays
o High dose of gamma rays which will kill any microbes in them
o It is called…


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