Physics GCSE AQA Further Revision

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Turning forces - Moments
08 April 2012
A spanner as an example has a turning effect on a nut. A spanner has a long handle means less force needs to
be exerted
The moment of the force or the turning effect can be increased by
o Increasing the size of the force
o Using a spanner with a longer handle
o The weight is called the load on a crowbar and the force the person applies is called the effort and the
point about which the crowbar turns is called the pivot.
o Moment (Nm) = Force (N) x Perpendicular distance from the pivot to the line of action of the force
The applied force F on the claw hammer tries to turn it clockwise about the pivot
The moment of force F about the pivot is F x D, where d is the perpendicular distance from the pivot to the
line of action of the force
The effect of the moment is to cause a much larger force to be exerted on the nail
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Centre of mass
08 April 2012
For a racing car, the weight must be as low as possible or it would overturn when cornering at high
The centre of mass of an object is the point where its mass may be thought to be concentrated.
The centre of mass of a symmetrical object
o If the object has more than one axis of symmetry, its centre of mass is where the axes of
symmetry meet.…read more

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Moments in balance
08 April 2012
The sum of all clockwise moments about any points = the sum of all anticlockwise moments about that point
o This is the principle of moments.…read more

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08 April 2012
Stability and safety
o Tractor safety
A tractor doesn't topple over because the line of action of its weight acts
within its wheelbase. If it is tilted more, it will topple over when the line of
action of its weight acts outside its wheelbase. Its weight would then give a
clockwise turning effect amount the lower wheel.…read more

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Circular motion
08 April 2012
For an object moving in a circle at constant speed, at any instant:
o The object's velocity is directed along a tangent to the circle
o Its velocity changes direction as it moves round
o The change of velocity is towards the centre of the circle
The object therefore accelerates continuously towards the centre of the circle so the force on
the object acts towards the centre of the circle
Centripetal force
o The centripetal force is the resultant…read more

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Gravitational attraction
08 April 2012
The Earth exerts a force of gravity on all of us; any two objects exert a force of gravitational
attraction on each other. The force depends on the mass of each object. The Earth is a massive
object so its force of gravitational attraction on each of us keeps us on the ground.…read more

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Planetary orbit
08 April 2012
Planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits. Things always orbit larger things. The
centripetal force on the orbiting object is due to the force of gravitational
attraction between it and the larger object.
The force of gravity on a planet such as Earth is due to the Sun. The force of
gravity on the planet due to the Sun acts towards the centre of the Sun.…read more

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08 April 2012
Satellite orbits
o If the speed of a satellite is too low, it will fall to the ground
o If its initial speed is too great, it will fly off into space
o At the correct speed, it orbits the Earth
A satellite in a higher orbit moves at a slower speed and travels further on each complete orbit
so takes longer to complete each orbit.…read more

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Light and sound - Reflection
08 April 2012
o A real image can be projected on a screen by focusing light rays onto the
screen. They are formed where rays of light (from the same point on the
object) cross, so they can be formed on a screen.
The shape of a mirror affects what you see.…read more

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Curved mirrors
08 April 2012
The concave mirror
o When you look closely at it, you should see an enlarged image of your face
o Retreat from the mirror and your image will retreat and become blurred
o Keep moving and your image will reappear upside down and very small
For a distant point object, the light rays are effectively parallel when they reach the mirror. Then they are
focused to the principle focus (or focal point), F, of the mirror.…read more


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