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Carl Hovland based at Yale university and investigated the effect of Nazi propaganda
during WW2. Found a sequential model of attitude change
Who says what to whom
This model has 4 stages:
1. attention
2. Comprehension
3. reactance
4. attitude change
· Source
More effective because they are more credible than non experts
Popular and attractive sources are more popular
· message (fear)
More effective if we think they are not intended to persuade
More effective if it creates a moderate level of fear
· Audience
Low, and high IQ audiences less easily persuaded than moderate intelligence
With intelligent audiences presenting both sides of an argument is more effective.…read more

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Attractiveness of the communicator, and found that they have more effect than
non attractive-Petty and Cacioppo
ie-celebs come in ad's to persuaded to buy a certain product.--Cheryl Cole-hair
Morton & Campbell:
Effects of information source on peers attitude towards unfamiliar child with
- Pp's received info from different sources e.g. Doctor, teachers, parents
- More positive attitude when info came from extra familial/expert source e.g.
Celebs not as effective or believable
Hume support Meenaghan
Not significantly increase persuasive communication of the advert. Sometimes
celebs can overshadow the product so people remember the celeb, however
persuasion fails because people may remember the celeb but not the product.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHw_wOlBzGQ…read more

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Putwain and Symes:
Classroom fear appeals related to the timing of
upcoming exam amongst secondary school students
Positive correlation when given advise however
when it was perceived threatening found negative
Real life anti drug campaign
Warn youngsters about dangers of crystal
methamphetamine/ICE (don't let ice destroy you)
Moderate fear-(images and scenes)ie skin damages
Found 78% of 13-24 yr olds felt the campaign had
changed their views on drugs.…read more

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Meyerwitz & chaiken
Female uni students randomly allocated 1 of 3 conditions:
Given leaflet about breast cancer
1) Loss condition -> emphasis on dangers of failing to self
2) Gain condition -> positive consequences of self examination
(early treatment etc)
3) Neutral condition -> basic facts about breast cancer
Interviewed 4 months after
Group exposed to fear changed attitude towards self examination.
+/- sample bias -> only uses females (gender bias) however only
really applies to them, although men can get breast cancer but
+ random allocation of groups
- Independent groups design ­> not everyone seas each leaflet
- Not protected from psychological harm -> sensitive issue…read more

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Youngsters more susceptible to persuasive
However children are more likely to make
mistakes and error in judgment due to
misleading questions ­AS-loftus and Palmer
Older children have a better understanding
of persuasive intents of advertisements it
selling products such as toys as younger
children don't…read more

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Thank you Madeha, this is a very helpful presentation :-)

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