Keating - Media Campaigns
Keating et al evaluated a campaign called VISION, which aimed to raise awareness of AIDS and safe sex practices, through TV, Radio, and Leaflets within Nigeria.
A cross section of Nigerian population were used (more than 3000 people of both gender's, and various ages, and religious backgrounds) were interviewed. It was found that the media campaign had been effective in reaching people as half had heard VISION broadcast on the radio, nearly half had been exposed to a printed leaflet, and a quarter had seen on the television.
However, although VISION had increased knowlege about AIDS, it didnt have a significant impact on safe sex practices, according to a self report measure of whether the respondent had used a condom the lastt occassion they had sexual intercourse. Keating et al suggested it would have been important if they gave info about where to acquire condoms. But it may have been free will rather than access as the issue.
Wakefield - Legislation
Wakefield wanted to see the impact of smoking restrictions on teenagers in the home, school, and public places. The sample was quite large, and consisted of 18,000 students attending schools across America, (1 school from every state).
They were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their smoking habits. They found restrictions in the home were most likely to have an effect on reducing teenage smoking, Bans in schools would work in the other direction unless strictly enforced.
However the researchers noticed that hidden variables that could not be controlled such as the fact that the significance of home bans may reflect the impact not so much of the bans itself, but the fact that the children brought up in households, that were motivated to reduce the chance of their children taking up smoking.
Ruiter - Fear Arousal
Ruiter conducted a study, in the Netherlands on breast self examination for evidence of potential breast cancer. It was an independent measures lab experiment, involving female undergraduates. They were randomly allocated to one of four groups:
- High Fear Arousal/Strong Persuasion
- High Fear Arousal/Weak Persuasion
- Low fear Arousal/Strong Persuasion
- Low Fear Arousal/Weak Persuasion
It was found that fear manipulation didn't have an effect, but individuals who reported before the experiment higher levels of fear of breast cancer than others, are more likely to express positive attitudes to regular breast examinations.
Also, more likely to get breast examination, if stronger persuasive message.