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Religious 1

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Religious 2

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Religious 3

Religious language talks about religious and spiritual concepts such as the
nature of God and the afterlife; things outside our senses.

Some people argue that it is possible to speak meaningfully, truthfully and
factually about these issues (e.g. Aquinas) others argue that it is not (e.g. Ayer).…

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Religious 4

Fundamental principle of Logical Positivism was that only propositions that
can be verified empirically have meaning.

Logical Positivists accept two forms of verifiable language:

Analytic propositions- which are true by definition, either because (a) this
is required by the definition of the words used ­ e.g. `this…

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or (b) subject the hypothesis to any new or further forms of testing. Perhaps a lot
of what we take for knowledge defies strict verification.

Devised by Anthony Flew
He said religious statements are meaningless
This is because nothing can count against religious statements.…

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Bliks are not necessarily untrue (some are sane and some insane), but they
are groundless.

JOHN HICK.. responds by arguing that there are reasons behind religious beliefs:
experiences, Scripture, etc. He also objects that there is no way to distinguish
between sane or insane bliks, and the…

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Religious 7

We are now looking at attempts to say that religious language can be used
meaningfully, only not in a direct or simplistically descriptive sense. Philosophers
like Aquinas and Tillich try to show how our language might relate to God.


Aquinas argues that we can't say anything…

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The basic idea is that humans possess God's qualities because we are created in
his image (Genesis 2). Yet, because God is perfect, we have his qualities in a lesser

Hick explains this by giving the example of faithfulness. Humans can be
faithful to each other,…

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Religious 9

Paul Tillich-

He made a distinction between signs & symbols, his main point being that
symbols are not signs
The difference is that symbols 'participate' in the object represented
EG. National flag evoke feelings of loyalty and patriotism as well as
symbolising a country
Tillich goes…

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non-religious symbols. Does this mean that religious language has no special

"Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must remain silent."- Ludwig Wittgenstein

"Don't ask me for the meaning, ask me for the use."

Wittgenstein changed his ideas since the time when he influence the…


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