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Energy Transfer
· Energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, evaporation and condensation.
All these processes involve particles.

Is the movement of thermal energy through a material without the particles in the material
Glass, wood and plastic are all poor conductors of heat.
Heat is the kinetic…

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· increase the temperature of the liquid, so more of them have enough energy to
escape the liquid
· increase the surface area of the liquid
· pass air across the surface of the liquid

Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid, it is…

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Solid, Liquid and Gas
Substances can change from one state to another. Kinetic theory can explain the change of
state by considering all matter (substances) to be made of particles.
· Solid, particles are closely packed in a regular arrangement. The particles vibrate
about a fixed position.

· Liquid, particles…

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Specific heat capacity
This is a measure of the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a
material by one degree Celsius.
heat transferred = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change
(joules, J) (kilogram , kg) ( joules / kilogram oC) (degrees Celsius, oC)…

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· travelling by public transport
· replacing old cars with new more efficient ones

Energy Transfers -types of energy
There are nine types of energy;
· Magnetic energy
· Kinetic (movement) energy
· Heat (thermal) energy
· Light
· Gravitational potential energy
· Chemical energy for example in coal and…

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We can use the squares on the graph paper to work out the efficiency of the device
represented by this Sankey diagram.

The National Grid

Electricity is transferred from the power station to
consumers along the national grid. The power lines across
the country connect together all the power stations…

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The fossil fuels used to generate electricity are coal, oil and natural gas. They release
heat energy when they are burned, and can therefore be classified as a fuel. They were
formed from the remains of living organisms millions of years ago and are called
fossil fuels. About three-quarters of…

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the process of generating electricity is then identical to the process using fossil fuels. The
heat energy is used to boil water. The kinetic energy in the expanding steam spins
turbines, which then drive generators to produce electricity.

The advantage of this process is that:
Nuclear fuels do not produce…

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Wind farms are noisy
They may spoil the view for people living near them.
The amount of electricity generated depends on the strength of the wind.
If there is no wind, there is no electricity.

Tidal Energy:
Tidal barrage is when huge amounts of water move in and out of…

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Wave energy is when the water in the sea rises and falls because of waves on the surface.
Wave machines use the kinetic energy in this movement to drive electricity

Advantages of wave power:
· Low running costs and energy supply (waves) are free
· No CO2 or SO2…


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