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Ownership and Control

Transnational Corporations

A large business with operations and outlets in a range of countries

Cross-Media Ownership

When a company owns several ranges of media forms
Such as TV and newspapers

Media Conglomerate

Organisation that owns large numbers of companies in various…

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Ideological State Apparatus

A collection of institutions that transmit ideology that supports the existing social


Making the system seem just and fair


The ideological control that ruling-class elite have over the masses

False Class Consciousness

The illusion instilled into the working class that the capitalist system is…

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Synergy refers to two complementary processes:
- The way in which media products that were once products that were once separate can be
- The ownership of the different companies responsible for all these products is increasingly in
the hands of one giant corporation


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- News Corp, for example, owns newspapers, magazines, publishers, TV channels and film
studies in several countries

Some media companies have focused on increasing economic control over all aspects of the
production process in order to maximize profits
- E.g. film corporations not only make movies, but distribute them to…

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Pluralists argue that owners, editors and journalists are trustworthy managers and protectors
of this process

Pluralists argue that media audiences are the real power holders because they can exercise
the right to buy or not to buy
If they did not like the choices that media owners are making available…

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As a large company, they are able to afford the quality


Criticised for failing to address the narrow background of media professionals
Neo-Marxists argue that media institutions are dominated by those who represent the
interests of the society
- As a result, there is restricted diversity views



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Marxists see trends as strengthening the control of owners and giving them wider range of
power over diverse area


Presents an overly conspiratorial view of role of owners, whose main aim is to provide
audience's demands
Owners' aim to make profit, brings them into conflict with other owners

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Hall et al.

Analysed ways in which media professionals create media products that reflect and reinforce
the power structure of society without overt influence or control from media owner
Book of Policing the crisis
- Media supported the role of the police and other legal structures


Studied Crime Watch…


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