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Transporting Substances around the Body

The Circulatory System

The circulatory system consists of the blood vessels, the heart and the blood.
Humans have a double circulation system, in which the heart acts as a pump, moving blood
around the body. The double circulation system makes our circulation very efficient and…

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Transport in the Blood

Blood is the main transport medium in the body. The blood plasma transports dissolved food
molecules, carbon dioxide and urea.
Red blood cells (made in the bone marrow)are adapted to transport oxygen from the lungs
to the organs:
They are biconcave discs, increasing their surface area…

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Anaerobic Respiration

In some circumstances, the oxygen supplied to the body is not sufficient to maintain aerobic
respiration, and the muscles switch to anaerobic respiration.

This delivers less energy to drive metabolism, so muscles become fatigued. The glucose is
not broken down completely and lactic acid is produced.

After a…

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In the Nephron


o Urea is carried dissolved in the blood plasma; ultrafiltration removes the liquid and
small molecules from the blood

o The walls of the capillaries and the Bowman's capsule act as very fine filters; proteins
and cells remain in the blood

o Water and solutes move…

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The Kidney (in short)

Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal body conditions; one of the things
needing to be regulated is the amount of toxins present.

Excess proteins cannot be stored and are therefore taken to the liver where they are
detoxified; they are converted to urea by the…

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o Blood is filtered and then returned to the patient's radial vein.

Kidney Transplant

New kidney situated in groin area

o Space available close to important blood supply

Connected to blood supply

o Renal artery and vein

Connected to ureter so urine is conducted to the bladder

Old kidney is…

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Initially costly, cost-effective over time Antigen-antibody reaction when donor
kidney is genetically different to
Patient can live a normal productive life recipient
No dietary restrictions Possibility of rejection by immune
system (Immunosuppressant drugs given
to minimise chances of rejection)

Less resistance to infections because of

Risk associated with invasive…


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