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Loftus & Palmer
Advantages Disadvantages
· Controls were kept tight so was certain · High level of control means low
to conclude that was word ecological validity
· That the memory is altered so · No valid measurement ­ is not real
eyewitness testimony's cannot be crash so causes estimate not to be
accurate accurate
· Quantitative data, easy to draw · Only students, good memory, not
conclusions from as only statistical representable of general population
data, comparisons were also easy to
make · No experience driving, interpretation
of speed is inaccurate
· Bias sample
· Demand characteristics
· No depth or detail into the answers…read more

Slide 2

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· Can control extraneous variables and Disadvantages
· Low ecological validity as was in a lab
standardised instructions
· Sample is small but difficult to find autistic ppts
· Allows cause and effect to be established so not representable
· Naturally occurring independent variables so
less ethical problems · Individual differences in the autistic group,
spectrum of characteristics.
· Implications for educators and others who
interact with autistic. Need to design work · Lab experiment so not representative
that is suitable and realise the child will not
respond `normally' · Ppts may have been disorientated therefore
performance is effected
· Concurrent validity as gained by results from
Happes stories so autistic preformed worse
on both tests. · The eyes were just images and not real life ,
· Autistic people void eye contact anyway so may
not be the best measure
· Is not valid therefore not useful…read more

Slide 3

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Savage Rumbaugh et al
Advantages Disadvantages
· The chips were both reared differently to is not
standardised and reduces reliability.
· Lots of detail ­ so be analysed easily
· Sample of two is not representable and cannot be
· Tight controls so high validity
· The pygmy chimps were siblings and may have been
intelligent sample needed to be larger
· Ecological validity was high as was in
55 acre forest where could roam · Humanizing the chimps with human food, Also they found
however were on leads the testing frustrating and scratched themselves. so seen s
harm ­ unethical however guidelines do not cover animals
· Chimps showed characteristics of · Narrow aspect of language was measured, doe snot
measure complex language
human child learning language
· A mixture of lb and forests not a natural environment so
low in ecological validity.
· Quantitative data allows easy
comparisons between chimps · Study revealed that bonobo chimps also have
spontaneous language
· Can we apply animals to humans
· Is not easy replicated
· Quantitative data does not allow for comments on…read more

Slide 4

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Samuel and Bryant
Advantages Disadvantages
· It had tight controls ­ so link between cause · Individual differences
and effect would be clear
· Low ecological validity as artificial situation -
· Repeated four times so any errors can be lab
· Ethics ­ was there consent?
· Independent measures and random task
order eliminated order effects · Devon cannot be representable
· It was a large sample so reliable results · Repeated measures ­ order effects
· Tasks were not stressful as only yes or no · Children o get involved even if didn't want to
· Demand characteristics ­ being asked the
· Has implications fro way primary schools same question could lead child to believe
teach s conservation comes earlier other answer is correct…read more

Slide 5

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Advantages Disadvantages
· Experimental condition so doesn't relate to
· Has tight controls ­ clear real life
links between cause and
· The models behaviour contradicts what they
effect have been taught ­ confusion
· Not representable as small groups,
ethnocentric , cant be generalised
· High reliability as easy to
replicate and with inter- · Did not record any other behaviours so data
is not clear
rater reliability
· Ethics- fearful for children(adult aggression) ,
could cause long term harm , there was no
consent , researchers used deception
· Quantitative so easy to
compare the groups · Low ecological validity - lab experiment…read more

Slide 6

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Advantages Disadvantages
· There is great detail into the · Lack of quantitative data so nothing to
measure against
persons thoughts and feelings
· Open to bias as father was follower of
· Lot of qualitative data giving
better understanding · Hans knew of the observation so
demand characteristics
· Ecological validity as in Hans · Only study so lacks reliability
natural environment
· Lacks validity as there are many
· It supports Freud's theory's of
· Is not genralisable
child sexual…read more

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