OCR B7 Complete Biology Revision Notes

Everything you need to know for the OCR B7 exam

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  • Created on: 06-06-11 22:32
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B7 ­ Further Biology
Respiration
Respiration isn't breathing in and out.
o It's the process of releasing energy from glucose, which happens constantly in every
cell.
Aerobic respiration needs plenty of oxygen.
o Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ energy released)
Energy released from respiration is used to make ATP.
o It's broken down to ADP when energy is released.
o ATP is synthesised from ADP using energy from respiration.
You respire more when you exercise.
o More ATP is used to contract you're muscles so you need more energy, so
respiration increases.
o Breathing rate increased to get more oxygen into the blood.
o Heart rate increases to get glucose and oxygenated blood around the body to your
muscle quicker, and remove CO quickly at the same time.
Anaerobic respiration doesn't use oxygen at all.
o Sometimes you can't supply your body with all the oxygen that it needs.
o So in anaerobic respiration glucose lactic acid (+ energy released) and you
produce energy but lactic acid builds up in your muscles.
o You need oxygen to clear up this acid, so you are in an oxygen debt.
o So you keep breathing for a while after you stop exercise.
Blood and blood typing
Blood is a fluid made of cells, platelets and plasma.
o Red blood cells ­ Transports oxygen from lungs to all the cells in the body.
o Plasma ­ Liquid that carries everything.
o White blood cells ­ Fight infection from microorganisms.
o Platelets ­ Small cell fragments that help the blood to clot.
Blood type is important in transfusions.
o If you have the wrong blood in you it can trigger the immune system to attack it and
it will make the blood clot.
o Blood type A has A antigens and B anti bodies, so B has B antigens and A antibodies.
o AB has no antibodies so can take all blood but because of its 2 antigens it can't give
blood.
o O is opposite to AB as it has no antigens but both antibodies.
Inheritance of Blood types
Alleles are different versions of the same gene.
o ABO blood type is determined by a single gene that has 3 alleles.
o Io is for blood type O. Ia for A, and Ib for B.
o Io is recessive but Ia and Ib are co-dominant.
The Circulatory System

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Humans have a double
circulatory system.
o One pumps
deoxygenated blood
to the lungs and back
to the heart.
o One pumps
oxygenated blood
around and back to the
heart.
Chemicals are being exchanged
between cells and capillaries.
o Arteries branch into
capillaries which are
tiny blood vessels.
o Small molecules (water,
glucose and oxygen) are forced out of the capillaries into the tissue fluid.
o Chemicals diffuse from tissue fluid into the cells and waste chemicals leave the cells
and diffuse into the capillaries.…read more

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Cure ­ Often the best cure is waiting for things to heal naturally.
o Recovery and rehabilitation ­ Same level of ability from before the injury, maybe
progressively more difficult tasks.
The treatment may need to be modified.
o No improvement.
o Damage
o Side effects that outweigh the benefit of treatment.
Excessive exercising can cause injuries.
o Sprains ­ Damage to ligament.
o Dislocations ­ Bone leaves its socket, causing severe pain.…read more

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Soil contains for main things.
o Inorganic matter ­ Rock, mineral irons ect.
o Biomass ­ Living and dead organic matter. Worms and stuff, and dead worms and
other dead stuff.
o Water ­ Good for plants
o Air ­ Vital for respiration of soil animals and roots.
Symbiosis
Living together in direct contact.
o Commensalism ­ Benefits one, but the other isn't harmed.
o Parasitism ­ One benefits and one is harmed.
Tapeworms:
o Live on digested food.…read more

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Three factors
o Light, CO and temperature.
o Any of these can be a limiting factor, which slows down the rate.
Not enough light or CO slows the rate.
o As you increase light the rate will increase.
o Eventually it will level off and something else will become the limiting factor.
Temperature.
o Too low the enzymes work too slowly.
o Too high and one will denature.
You can measure the rate under different conditions.…read more

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Gene modification is great.
o New useful microorganisms.
o Plants resistant to stuff.
Genetic modification involves important stages.
o Wanted gene is isolated.
o Cut from DNA using restriction enzymes and isolated.
o Gene joined to a vector (often the plasmid or a virus).
o Now inserted into the host DNA of the organism to produce desired characteristic.
Genetically modified organisms can be used to make insulin.
o Cultured in a fermenter.
o Modified microorganisms are cheap and easy.…read more

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Comments

Andrew Payn

A great thing to find the day before an exam. Great to just make sure I know everything, and what I know is correct/complete!

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