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acid A species that is a proton donor.

activation energy The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking
of bonds.

addition polymer A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions
of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).

addition The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)…

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average bond The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by
enthalpy homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of
a gaseous species.

Avogadro constant, NA The number of atoms per mole of the carbon12 isotope
(6.02 × 1023 mol­1).

base A species…

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dative covalent A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the
bonding atoms only also called a coordinate bond.

dehydration An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a
saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.

delocalised electrons Electrons that are shared between more than…

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enthalpy, H The heat content that is stored in a chemical system.

(standard) enthalpy The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a
change of substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard
combustion, Hc conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard

(standard) enthalpy The enthalpy…

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giant metallic lattice A threedimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised
electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds.

greenhouse effect The process in which the absorption and subsequent emission of
infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warms the lower
atmosphere and the planet's surface.

group A vertical column in the Periodic…

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dipole­dipole forces), permanent dipole­dipole forces or
hydrogen bonds.

ion A positively or negatively charge atom or (covalently bonded)
group of atoms (a molecular ion).

ionic bonding The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

(first) ionisation The energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one
energy mole of…

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molecular ion, M+ The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule
loses an electron.

molecule A small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.

monomer A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to
form a polymer.

nomenclature A system of naming compounds.

nucleophile An atom…

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precipitation reaction The formation of a solid from a solution during a chemical
reaction. Precipitates are often formed when two aqueous
solutions are mixed together.

principal quantum A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital,
number, n which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of

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shell A group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum
number, n. Also known as a main energy level.

simple molecular A threedimensional structure of molecules, bonded together by
lattice weak intermolecular forces.

skeletal formula A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from
alkyl chains, leaving just a…

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termination The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals
combine to form a molecule.

thermal The breaking up of a chemical substance with heat into at least
decomposition two chemical substances.

troposphere The lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending from the
Earth's surface up to…


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