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Chemistry for Life
Elements of Life

Atomic number: number of protons in the nucleus.

Mass number: number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.

Isotope :Atoms of the same element which have different mass numbers.

Avogadro constant:One mole of any substance contains 6.02 x 1023 formula units.

Relative isotopic mass:…

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Electron Structure

Element Atomic number 1st shell 2nd shell 3rd shell 4th shell
Hydrogen 1 1
Helium 2 2
Lithium 3 2 1
Berylium 4 2 2
Boron 5 2 3
Carbon 6 2 4
Nitrogen 7 2 5
Oxygen 8 2 6
Fluorine 9 2 7
Neon 10 2…

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Radioactivity
Unstable nuclei are radioactive.

Radiation What is it? Relative How does the Stopped by? Deflection in
charge nucleus change? electric field?
Alpha Helium nuclei +2 2 fewer protons Paper or skin Low
He 2 fewer neutrons
Beta Electrons -1 1 more proton Aluminium High
°e 1 fewer neutron foil…

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Metallic lattice Metallic high insoluble Will conduct




Valence Shell Electron Repulsion Theory (around the central atom!)

6 groups of electrons ­ octahedral-90°



5 groups of electrons ­ trigonal bipyramidal-90°/120°



4 groups of electrons:
i. 4 bonding pairs ­ tetrahedral- 109°
ii. 3 bonding pairs and 1 lone pair ­
pyramidal-…

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electrons closer to nucleus so the atomic size is smaller
d) first ionisation enthalpy, harder to ionise down the period for the same reason as atomic size

Mendeleev developed the Periodic Table by leaving gaps and rearranging some elements from their
atomic mass order. Subsequent research validated this knowledge.

Mass…

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together on the surface to form the products. Desorbed off surface. Important for the catalyst to
have a high surface area.
Homogenous catalysis: the catalyst and reactants are in the same physical state.
Catalyst poison: poison is strongly adsorbed onto the catalyst surface; the poison blocks the catalyst
surface, preventing…

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Butane, Pentane, Hexane, Heptane, Octane, Nonane, Decane
Cycloalkanes: CnH2n, single bonds, aliphatic
Alkenes: CnH2n, unsaturated- double bond, aliphatic
Arenes: unsaturated, aromatic, simplest arene is C6H6 ­ benzene
Alcohols: have a hydroxylg group (OH), names end in OL, they react completely with oxygen to give
CO2 and water.
Ethers: have an…

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Alkanes branched alkanes + branched alkenes
Alkanes smaller alkanes + cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes alkenes + branched alkenes
Alkenes smaller alkenes

Anti knocking agents:
-Addition of additives (alkyl lead and oxygenates)
-interfere at different point in the pre-flame reactions
-oxygenates retard undesirable low temperature reaction
-alkyl lead compounds react in the intermediate…

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Nuclear:
Does not produce CO2, NOx, SO2. Risk of radioactive isotopes being released. Spent fuel rods highly
radioactive. Problems with decommissioning old nuclear power stations which use fission.

Renewable Sources:
Photovoltaic cells, windmills, hydroelectricity, solar thermal energy and wave/tidal barrages. No
harmful emissions. Unsightly. Problem of transporting the energy from…

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