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TOPIC ONE : THE STATE OF RUSSIA IN 1855


COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE WEST AND RUSSIA

19TH Century saw great advances throughout Europe in terms of industry, energy,
communications, public health, literacy, democracy and living standards, Russia remained
way behind in all such developments.
The position of peasants had improved across…

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THE FAILURE OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE TO REALISE ITS POTENTIAL

Potentially Russia had vast resources of agricultural produce, timber, coal, oil, gold and
other precious metals but most was left untapped and communication between the different
areas of the empire was poor.



THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

At…

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The `Collected Laws of the Russian Empire' compiled by Nicholas I in 1832 stated : `The
Emperor of all the Russias is an autocratic and unlimited monarch God himself ordains that
all must bow to his supreme power, not only out of fear but also out of conscience.'
Tsar titular…

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FINANCE AND THE ECONOMY

Government financed by taxes and dues, most from peasantry. Poll Tax used to meet costs
of army and levied on every person at same rate irrespective of wealth had exemptions for
nobles and clergy. Other indirect taxes, on items such as salt, hit peasants hard. 90%…

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Slogan found in schoolbooks, newspapers, etc.
Russians taught to accept place in society (no upward mobility)
Taught to see Mother Russia (language, culture, customs) as a safeguard against the
immorality of the West
It is our common obligation to ensure that the education of the people be conducted,
according to…

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