- Created by: S_webb
- Created on: 06-01-19 17:09
- 1852 Napoleon III -- lloked for opportunity to oppose Russia. 1740 French Catholic monks had been granted the right to holy places in Palestine but Greeks had gradually taken over. 1850 Sultan presented witha French demand. December 1852 handed over to Catholic priests -- Nicholas I was outraged.
- 1852 Aberdeen PM, Palmeston Home Secretary, John Russell then Clarendon Foreign Secretar. Janaury 1853 meetings with Hamilton Seymour, a gentleman's agreement suggste. Nicholas thought that he had direct support from the British but really the Cabinet was divided with Palmeston leading the main anti-Russian camp. Janaury 1853 Russian troops on the Moldavian / Wallachian borders. February 1853 the Menskikov meeting, demand that keys be given back to Orthdox and that the tsar be the protector of Christians ruled by the Sultan (around one-third of his subjects). Stratford de Redcliffe, British ambassador, urged the SUltan to stans firm. May Russia announced that the occupation would continue.
- June British ships to Besika Bay, joined by a French fleet. July troops ordered into the Danubian provinces. August the "BVeiinna Note" of few concessions to the Tsar on the Sultan's part acceptd, but the Sultan insisted on amendments (Redcliffe encouraged htis) which Nicholas rejected.
- October Turkey and Russia at law. November Anglo-French fleets into Marmara, violating 1841 Straits Convention. 30 November the "massacre of Sinope", outraging British opinion. Jnanaury 1854 Anglo-French fleets into the bLack Sea. February Russian broke off relations, 27 and 28 March French and British declaration of war respectively.
- Diplomatic attempts in March 1854 by Palmeston -- Finalnd to Sweden, Baltic provinces to Prussia, Poland independent, Austria gets Wallachia / Moldavia, Ottomans Crimea and Georgia. Buol keen to support Britain and Franceb ut Franz Joseph did not want war. Austrians formulated the Four Points: Russian guarantees of Principalities replacedb y European guarantee, Danube a free river, Straits Convention revised, Christian subjects underp an-European protection. Of course Nicholas rejected all this.
- The armies -- Raglan appoiinted 1984. Of his five infantry divisional commanders only one, the Duke of Cambirdge, was under 60 and he proved an arch-conservative anyway. Sir John Burgoyne, chief engineer, was 72. Only two had ever led anythign larger than a battallion (rarely > 1,000 men in practice) into battle. Secretary fo State for War + Colonies, Secretary-at-War (financial / legal army matters), Commander-in-Chief (discipline, appointments, promitions, general readiness), Adjutant-General (recruitingm discipline, pay, arms, clothing), Quartermaster-General (movement, quartering, barracks, camps), Board of Geenral officers (advice to Adjutant), Hoeme Secretary (yeomany, miltiia, distribution of troops in Britain), Ordnance (engineers, artillery, admmunition), Commissariat (food, fuel, transport).
- 1840s the army budget was £9.5m (cf £42m in 1815). Rarely more than 115,000 men. 21 yearsi nfantry, 24 cavalry. 1839-1853 58,139 deaths particularly in India (tropical conditions). 1lb (450g) bread, 3/4 lb (340g) meat. 1s pay / day for infantry of which 6d was on food. 1846 maximum of 50 lashes at one punishment. Lord Howick did try to improve diet and accomodation as Secretary-at-War and Colonial Sec but Parliament rejected most reforms to save money…