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THE MULTI-STORE MODEL
A01 A02
The multistore model of memory was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin One strength of the multistore model is that is gives us a
and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three
stores: sensory memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term good understanding of the structure and process of the
memory (LTM). Information passes from store to store in a linear way. STM. This is good because this allows researchers to
Both STM and LTM are unitary stores. expand on this model. This means researchers can do
experiments to improve on this model and make it more
Sensory memory is the information you get from your sense, your valid and they can prove what the stores actually do.
eyes and ears. When attention is paid to something in the
environment it is then converted to short-term memory.
It has now become apparent that both short-term and
If any information is not important then it decays or disappears. long-term memory are more complicated that previously
Once in the short term memory informed can be rehearsed and thought. For example, the Working Model of Memory
some information is rehearsed and then passed into long term proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) showed that short
term memory is more than just one simple unitary store
Each store has its own characteristics in terms ofencoding, and comprises different components (e.g. central
capacity and duration. executive, visuo-spatial etc.).
Encoding is the way in when information is changed into a form The model suggests rehearsal helps to transfer
which can be stored, e.g. acoustic, visual, semantic. There are
three main ways in which information can be encoded (changed): information into LTM but this is not essential. Why are we
1. Visual (picture), 2. Acoustic (sound), 3. Semantic (meaning). able to recall information which we did not rehearse (e.g.
swimming) yet unable to recall information which we have
Capacity concerns how much information can be stored. rehearsed (e.g. reading your notes while revising).
Therefore, the role of rehearsal as a means of transferring
Duration refers to the period of time information can last in the from STM to LTM is much less important than Atkinson
memory stores. and Shiffrin (1968) claimed in their model.…read more

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RESEARCH STUDY FOR BOTH
STM & LTM
Research Study for both STM & LTM
Glanzer and Cunitz showed that when
participants are presented with a list of
words, they tend to remember the first few
and last few words and are more likely to
forget those in the middle of the list, i.e. the
serial position effect.
This supports the existence of separate
LTM and STM stores because they
observed a primacy and recency effect.
Words early on in the list were put into long
term memory (primacy effect) because the
person has time to rehearse the word, and
words from the end went into short term
memory (recency effect).…read more

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WORKING MODEL OF
MEMORY A02
Working Memory Model
Working memory is supported by dual task studies. It is easier
A01 to do two tasks at the same time if they use different processing
systems (verbal and visual) than if they use the same slave
The working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974) replaced the
idea of a unitary STM. It suggests a system involving active system. For example, participants would find it hard to do two
processing and short-term storage of information. visual tasks at the same time because they would be competing
for the same limited resources of the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
Key features include the central executive, the phonological loop, and However, a visual task and a verbal task would use different
the visuo-spatial sketch pad.
components and so could be performed with minimum errors.
The central executive has a supervisory function and controls the
slave systems. It monitors incoming information and allocates slave The KF Case Study supports the Working Memory Model. KF
systems to tasks. It has limited storage capacity but can process suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident that
information from any sensory modality.
damaged his short-term memory. KF's impairment was mainly
One of the slave systems is the phonological loopwhich is temporary for verbal information - his memory for visual information was
storage system for holding auditory information in a speech based largely unaffected. This shows that there are separate STM
form. It has two parts: (1) the phonological store (inner ear), which
stores words you hear; and (2) the articulatory process (inner voice), components for visual information (VSS) and verbal information
which allows maintenance rehearsal (repeating sounds or words to (phonological loop). However, evidence from brain-damaged
keep them in working memory while they are needed). The patients may not be reliable because it concerns unique cases
phonological loop plays a key role in the development of reading.
with patients who have had traumatic experiences.
The second slave system is the visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS). The
VSS is a temporary memory system for holding visual and spatial One limitation is the fact that little is known about how the
information. It has two parts: the inner scribe (which records the central executive works. It is an important part of the model but
arrangement of objects in the visual field), and visual cache (which
store visual data). it's exact role is unclear.
The third slave system is the episodic buffer which acts as a 'backup' Another limitation is that the model does not explain the link
(temporary) store for information which communicates with both long term between working memory and LTM.
memory and the slave system components of working memory.…read more

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MISLEADING INFORMATION
Misleading Information A02
A01
The research lacks mundane realism, as the video
Loftus and Palmer investigated how misleading information could clip does not have the same emotional impact as
distort eyewitness testimony accounts. witnessing a real-life accident and so the research
lacks ecological validity.
Procedure: Forty-five American students formed an opportunity
sample. This was a laboratory experiment with five conditions, only
one of which was experienced by each participant (an independent A further problem with the study was the use of
measures experimental design). students as participants. Students are not
representative of the general population in a
Participants were shown slides of a car accident involving a number number of ways. Importantly they may be less
of cars and asked to describe what had happened as if they were
eyewitnesses. They were then asked specific questions, including the experienced drivers and therefore less confident in
question "About how fast were the cars going when they their ability to estimate speeds. This may have
(hit/smashed/collided/bumped/contacted ) each other?" influenced them to be more swayed by the verb in
Findings: The estimated speed was affected by the verb used. The verb
the question.
implied information about the speed, which systematically affected the
participants' memory of the accident. A strength of the study is it's easy to replicate (i.e.
copy). This is because the method was a laboratory
Participants who were asked the "smashed" question thought the cars experiment which followed a standardised
were going faster than those who were asked the "hit" question. The
participants in the "smashed" condition reported the highest speeds, procedure.
followed by "collided", "bumped", "hit", and "contacted" in descending
order.…read more

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AFFECTING FACTORS
Age
A02
A01
Young children are more likely to yield to social pressure, especially when in
One strength of the Dodson and
the presence of an authority figure. Also, young children's cognitive abilities Krueger study is that it has important
are not well developed, they tend to believe in their distorted information
due to the limitations of memory processing, attention or language. real life applications. Juries tend to be
Research has shown children aged 6 to 15 yrs failed to understand one-
more influenced by confident
third of questions asked by lawyers in court. The formal language used in eyewitnesses than an uncertain one.
the courtroom can be confusing for children to understand and could make
their testimony unreliable. This means juries may be more
In experimental setting children tend to change their answer if asked the
influenced by an older witness than a
same question twice. If this happen in real life setting too (e.g. the court younger one, especially if an older
room) then this will have important implications for the accuracy of child
witnesses. person is a professional with a high
Dodson and Krueger (2006) asked college students and older participants
status. The studies authors suggest
(60 - 80 years) to watch a 5 minute video of a burglary and police chase, that this issue of confidence may be
and answer 24 yes/no questions about what they saw in the video. Eight of
the questions referred to details not in the video (i.e. misleading one of the most important explanations
information). Both young and older participants made a similar rate of
errors, i.e. they claimed to have seen events not shown in the video. of wrongful eyewitness convictions.
However, the older participants were more confident that their answers
were correct (when in fact they were not).…read more

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