Coding, Cpaacity and Duration of Memory

  • Created by: lily.2002
  • Created on: 04-02-19 21:07
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  • Coding, Capacity and Duration of Memory
    • Coding
      • Baddeley gave list of words to participants
        • group 1 - acoustically similar,sound similar
        • group 2 - acoustically dissimilar, sound different
        • Group 3 - semantically similar, similar meanings
        • Group 4 - sematically dissimilar, different meanings
        • participants shown words and asked to recall in correct order. used STM recall. participants did worse on acoustically similar words. if they were asked to recall after 20 mins, they would do worse on sematically similar words.
          • suggests information is coded semantically in LTM
      • process of converting information from one form to another
    • Capacity
      • Digit Span (Jacobs 1887)
        • Jacobs developed technique to measure digit span
          • researcher will give 4 digits that participants will have to recall out loud and researcher will inrease the number by 1 until partcipant can no longer recall.
          • Jacobs found that the mean span for digiits is 9.3 items and the span for letters was 7.3
      • Memory and Chunking (Miller 1956)
        • He noted things come in sevens. like the 7 muscial notes, 7 days of the weak or 7 deadly sins.
        • this suggests capacity of STM is 7 items, plus or minus 2
        • also noted that people can recall 5 words as well as 5 letters and this is done by chunking - grouping digits or letters into chunks or units.
    • Duration
      • Duration of STM
        • Peterson tested 24 undergraduate students who took part in 8 trials
        • on each trial particpant was given constant syllable (trigram) and also 3 digit number. students were then asked to count backwards from that 3 digit number, prevents mental rehearsal.
        • on each trial they were told to stop after a certain amount of time, 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. this is the retention interva.
        • suggests STM has a very short duration unless it is repeated constantly
      • Duration of LTM
        • studuies 392 participants aged from 17 to 74. high school year book was used in the experiment
        • recall was tested with photo recognition, 50 phtoos and free recall where particpants would recall names of the students
        • partcipants tested within 15 of graduating were 90%accurate on photo recognition. after 48 years, it declined to 70%
        • after 15 years, 60% on free recall then dropping to 30% after 48 years
        • LTM can last a very long time


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