• Created by: jp3louis
  • Created on: 06-01-17 21:48
Defintion of eyewitness testimony
People remembering events such as accidents and crimes which they themselves have observed.
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Defintion of misleading information (and examples)
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness after the event. It can take many forms such as leading questions and post-event discussion
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Defintion of Leading question
A question which leads towards a certain answer.
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Defintion of Post-event discussion
Where there is more than one witness and they discuss what they have seen which can affect the accuracy of the recall of the event.
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Give an example of a study testing leading questions
Loftus and palmer - how fast a car hit eachother - verb changed.
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What is the response bias explanation in relation to eyewitness testimony and how was it proven?
suggests the wording of a question has no effect on the participant’s memories but just influences how they decide to answer. Lotus and palmer proved with the is their smashed glass car scene and if they had a harsher verb, they said yes.
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Give an example of a study of post-event discussion
Gabbert and her colleagues - studied pairs - same crime but two different angles and let them talk about it afterwards. 71% of information was inncorect. a control group was 0%.
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Why do people change what they have seen during post-event discussion? What is this phenomenon called?
Social approval, thinks others are correct - called memory conformity.
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What is a limitation of eye witness in reference to age?
Older people are less accurate. ANastasi and Rhodes found younger people below 55-78 identifed better.
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Give the study that is used for the negative effect of anxiety.
Johnson and scott- low anxiety - arguement followed by a man with a pen and grease on hands. High anxiety - arguement, glass smashed, man with blood and a kiife. 49% in low anxiety could identify man. 33% in high level could identify man.
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Why might it actually be the element of suprise thats being tested rather than anxiety. Give an example.
Johnson and scotts - element of suprise as they didnt expect to see it. Pickel - hairdressers with variety of items and EWT was poorer in very unsual circumstances so this suggests weapon focus effect is due to unusualness rather than anxiety.
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Guve the study that is use for the positive effect of anxiety
Yuille and cutshall - real life shooting in vancouver - 4/5 months later asked to recall event and rate their stress/ any problems since. Witnesses were very accurate in their accounts and was little change. High stress - most acurate.
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Explain Yerkes and dodsons theory
The relationship between emotional arousal and performance is liked an inverted U. Deffenbacher applied the yerkes-dodson law to EWT. Low anxiety produce Low accuracy then gets better accuracy as anxiety gets higher - till a point then decreases
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Definition of cognitive interview
– A method of interviewing eyewitnesses to help them retrieve more accurate memories. It uses four main techniques, all based on well-established psychological knowledge of human memory – report all, reinstate context, reverse order, change perspecti
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Who was the researchers who argued for Cognitive interview?
Fisher and Geiselman - EWT could be improved if police used better techniques. Techniques should be based on psychological insights into memory and made into an interview.
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What are the four main parts of the cognitive interview.
Report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order, change persepective.
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Why should they have to report everything in CI
Including all details could be a que for bigger details they could have missed.
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Why should they have to reinstate the context in ci
So they can return to their mind palace and remeber more. Related to context-dependent forgetting.
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Why should they have to Reverse the order in ci
Stops people reporting their expectations rather than how the event actually happened and prevents dishonesty.
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Why should they have to change perspective in ci
Fisher et al fund some extra elements of ci that focus on social dynamics of interaction. Like the interviewer needs to have eye contact at certain times. It also limits anxiety, minimises distractions, speaking slowly and open ended q's.
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Definition of coding
Format in which information is stored in memory sources
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Definition of capacity
The amount of information that can be held in a memory store
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Definition of duration
How long the information can be stored.
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Definition of STM
Limited capacity memory store. Coding is acoustic and between 5 to 9 items on average, duration between 18 and 30 seconds.
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Definition of LTM
Permanent memory store, coding is semantic and has unlimited capacity – stores memory forever.
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What research has been done on coding?
The process of converting information from one form to another is called coding. Baddeley gave lists of words to 4 groups. One was acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, semantically dissimilar.
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What were the findings from the research on coding?
When they had to recall the words straight after (STM) they did worse with semantically similar words. This was also the same when they did it after 20 minutes. This shows information is coded semantically in LTM.
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What is a disadvantage of the study on coding?
Used artificial stimuli instead of real life things so this shows it had no personal meaning to the P’s. This means it’s hard to generalise as we tend to remember things that mean something to us better.
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What study was on the research on capacity by Jacobs?
Jacobs developed a technique to measure digit span.The researcher gave 4 digits to a p and they had to recall these out loud. If correctly, the length of no's increased. The mean for no's 9.3 + 7.3 for letters.
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Give the advantages and disadvantage of the digit span by jacobs.
ADV: his results are in other studies - good validity. DIS: Conducted a long time ago so it lacks control – extraneous variables.
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what study was on the research of capacity by miller?
Span of memory and chunking - noted things come in 7. Capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2. He noted peeps can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters by chunking.
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What study was used to research the duration of STM?
Peterson n' peterson with 24 students. took part in 8 trials which consisted of constant syllable called trigram to remember and a 3 digit number. The students counted back from the number and they found we have short duration unless we rherse it.
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ADV and DIS of the study used to research duration in STM
ADV: we sometimes remember fairly meaningless words like phone numbers so it isn’t completely irrelevant. DIS: Trying to remember trigrams isn’t a true reflection of a real life situation. It lacks external validity.
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What study was used to research the duration of LTM?
Bahrick et al. Yearbooks. Tested within 15 years - 90% accurate on photos. AFter 48 years - down to 70%. Free recal - 15 yr - 60% acurate. after 48yr - 30% accurate. LTM can last a long time.
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Give the ADV and DIS of the study used to research the duration of LTM.
ADV: Higher external validity – real life memories studied. DIS: Confounding variables not controlled as they could have looked at the book over the years and rehearsed their memories.
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Give the definiton of MSM (multi -store memory)
a representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called sensory register, STM and LTM. It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another and how it is remembered and forgotten.
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Give the definition of sensory register
The memory store for each of the the five senses. Coding in the ionic sensory register (vision) is visual and in the echoic sensory (hearing) it is acoustic. The capacity of the sensory registers is huge and information last for a very small time
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Who made the MSM and what does it describe?
Atkinson and Shiffrins - how info flows through the memory system.
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What is the sensory register and how is it used?
in MSM. A stimulus from the environment will go into the sensory register. It will only last less than half a second and they have high capacity.
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What is the STM and how is it used in MSM?
Has a limited capacity store (between 5 and 9 items, 7 add or minus 2) Coded acoustically and lasts 30 seconds unless rehearsed.
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What is the LTM and how is it used in MSM?
Potentially permanent for memories Unlimited capacity Coded semantically We have to retrieve memories to process them.
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Give a strength of the MSM
supported by a lot of research that show LTM and STM are different. Baddeley found we mix words up with similar meanings in LTM and in STM we mix up words with similar sounds.
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Give a limitation of STM in the MSM model.
Evidence from people with amnesia show that there cannot be just one type of STM. Shallice and Warrington studied a patient with Amnesia known as KF. KF’s STM for digits was poor - read to him aloud however when read them to himself he did better.
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Give a limitation of the MSM model
more than one type of rehearsal.Craik and Watkins found that what really matters is the type of rehearsal. 2 types but msm doesnt transfer into ltm and stays in stm. Doesn't explain this in the model.
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Definition of episodic memory
A LTM store for personal events – things that happened, the people there, objects, places and behaviours involved. Memories here have to be retrieved consciously and with effort.
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.Definition of semantic memory
A LTM store for our knowledge of the world like facts or what words and concepts mean. These need to be recalled deliberately.
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definition of procedural memory
A LTM store for how we do things. This includes memories of learned skills. We recall these without a conscious decision or effort.
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WHo was the first person to see that MSM view of LTM was too simplistic?
Tulving. He proposed 3 LTM stores containing quite different types of information
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Explain the episodic memory.
how we refer to recent episodes. They are time stamped. They also have several elements in just one episode. . Lastly, you have to actually try to recall these memories
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explain semantic memory
contain what we know about the world. memories are not time stamped Semantic knowledge is less personal and more about facts we all share.
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explain procedural memory
Our memory for actions and skills. We recall these memories without effort. They are hard to explain as they come unconsciously to us.
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Explain the clinical evidence for LTM
clive wearing The episodic memory in him was extremely bad from amnesia and he had difficulty recalling memories from his life yet their semantic memories were still pretty good. This supports Tulvings theory as it shows theres more than one type.
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Explain the neuroimaging of evidence in LTM
Brain scan studies show there are different types of LTM. Tulving got participants and made them perform various memory tasks and their brains were scanned with a PET scanner. episodic was fond on the right and semantic on the left. validity is high
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explain real-life applications of LTM.
Belleville found that episodic memories could be improved in older people with mild cognitive impairment. The trained p’s performed better on a test of episodic memories after training than a control group. Good as we can treat different LTM.
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Define Working Memory model
A representation of STM. It suggests STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system.
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Define central executive (CE)
The component of the WMM that co-ordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory. It also allocates processing resources to these activities.
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Define phonological loop (PL)
The component of the WMM that processes information in terms of SOUND. This includes both written and spoken material. It’s divided into the phonological store and articulatory process.
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Define Visuo-spatial sketchpadd (VSS)
The component of the WMM that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called our inner eye.
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Define episodic buffer (EB)
component of the WMM that brings together material from the other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. Provides a bridge between working memory and long-term memory.
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What is the WMM and what does it explain?
The working Memory Model is an explanation of how memories in the STM are organised and function. The model consists of four main components, each of which is qualitatively different especially in terms of capacity and coding.
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What is the central executive?
Part of WMM An attention process that monitors incoming data, makes decisions and allocates slave systems to tasks. The CE has very limited processing capacity.
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WHat is the phonological loop
Part of WMM. One of the slave systems. It deals with auditory info (coding is acoustic) and it keeps the order in which the info comes in. It is split into two groups.The phonological store -words hear. Articulatory process - Maintenance rehearsal.
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Part of WMM.The second slave system. stores visual and/or spatial info when required. It has a limited capacity of 3 or 4 objects. It is subdivided into.The visual cache – stores visual data. inner scribe - arrangement of objects in visual field.
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What is the episodic buffer?
The third slave system temporary store for information, integrating the visual, spatial and verbal information processed by other stores and maintaining sense of time sequencing. links working memory to LTM +wider cognitive processes like perception
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Define interference
forgetting because one memory blocks, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten.
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Define proactive interference
forgetting occurs when older memories disrupt the recall of newer Memories.
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Define retroactive interference
Forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored.
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What is interference?
Interference has been proposed as an idea for an explanation of forgetting in LTM. The closer two memories are together, the more is forgotten.
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What are the 2 types of interference?
Proactive interference. Retroactive interference
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Who studied retroactive interference and what did they do?
Mcgeoch and Mcdonald-changing the amount of similarity between words. found the more similar words are, the less acurately they are recalled.
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define retrieval failure
A form of forgetting. It occurs when we don’t have the necessary cues to access the memory.
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define cue
A trigger of information that allows us to access a memory. Such cues may be meaningful or indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning. Ques can be external (environmental context) or internal (mood or degree of drunkenness).
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What is the encoding specificity principal by tulving?
reviewed research into retrieval failure and discovered a pattern in the findings and he called this the encoding specificity principal (ESP). if a cue is to help us recall information, it has to be present at encoding and at retrieval
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give the two different types of cues
cues are linked to the material being remembered like certain key phrases. Others are meaningless and there are two examples of this. Context-dependent forgetting (external ques) and state-dependent forgetting (internal ques)
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Explain context-dependent forgetting and the study used to prove it.
Godden and Baddeley carried out an investigation of sea divers. In this study, divers learned a list of words either underwater or on land and then were asked to recall. if environment different-40% decrease in accurate recall.external ques.
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Explain state-dependent forgetting and the study used.
Carter and Cassaday gave anti-histamine drugs to participants p’s had a list of word there was a mismatch between internal state at learning and recall, performance on the memory test was significantly worse. So when the cues were absent more forget
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Explain state-dependent forgetting and the study used.
Carter and Cassaday gave anti-histamine drugs to participants p’s had a list of word there was a mismatch between internal state at learning and recall, performance on the memory test was significantly worse. So when the cues were absent more forget
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Card 2


Defintion of misleading information (and examples)


Incorrect information given to the eyewitness after the event. It can take many forms such as leading questions and post-event discussion

Card 3


Defintion of Leading question


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Card 4


Defintion of Post-event discussion


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Card 5


Give an example of a study testing leading questions


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