notes for OCR Unit 1, Module 2: Electrons, Bonding and Structure

These are my condensed notes

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i condensed the book 

i got experiemental with the bullet points haha so feel free to change them if you want to 

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE


1.2.1 EVIDENCE FOR SHELLS
Ionisation energy

1st ionisation energy is energy required to remove one electron from each atom of a gaseous mole
of atoms to produce one 1 mol of gaseous 1+ ions.
Requires less energy than next…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




1.2.3 SUB-SHELLS AND ENERGY LEVELS
Sub-shells

Is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals w/in a shell
An e- shell is made w/ same q p no `n'. W/in each shell of same type grouped together as…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE



Chemical Bonding
It's classified into 3 main types; covalent, ionic and metallic.
A compound formed when atoms of dif elements are in same proportions
Ionic bonding
Occurs in metal and non-metal compounds
If imagined bond formed between atoms, e-…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE



1.2.7 IONS & THE PERIODIC TABLE
Predicting ionic charges
Can predict charges on ion from element in PT
Can find out elements e- so can calculate how many needed to drop or gain to reach noble gas e.c.
Metals…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE



1.2.9 FURTHER COVALENT BONDING
Dative covalent bonding
Is when the covalent bond is formed by one atom donating both electrons in the bond to the other atom. This
is called a dative covalent bond written as A B
In…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




Molecules with lone pairs
Lone e- pairs are slightly more e--dense that bonded pair where
relative strength of repulsion =
· Lone pair| Lone pair < lone pair| bonded atom < bonded pair| bonded
pair.
Each lone pair reduces…

Page 7

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




Electronegativity & bonding type

Bonding between atoms of two different elements with a small difference in electronegativity. The
more en atom will have a little bit more of a share of the e-s which gives a polar covalent bond.…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




Van der Waals' forces increase as e- increases. The greater no. of e-, the larger the induced dipoles,
the greater the attractive forces between molecules, which are the van der Waals' forces.
Boiling points and van der Waals' forces…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




Special properties of water
H-bond in H2O has strength enough to affect properties in unexpected ways:
1. Ice is less dense than water as it has an open lattice with h-bonds holding H2O
molecules apart whereas when melted, the…

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Anusha S. UNIT 1; MODULE 2: ELECTRONS , BONDING & STRUCTURE




Properties of giant metallic lattices

· Most metals have high melting and boiling points as the attraction between the fixed
positive ions and the free, delocalised e- are very strong. This means that a high amount of
energy is…

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