Chemistry OCR F322 notes

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UNIT F322: Chains, Energy and Resources
Module 1: Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons
2.1.1 Basic Concepts
2.1.2 Alkanes
2.1.3 Alkenes
Module 2: Alcohols, Halogenoalkanes and Analysis
2.2.1 Alcohols
2.2.2 Halogenoalkanes
2.2.3 Modern Analytical Techniques
Module 3: Energy
2.3.1 Enthalpy Changes
2.3.2 Rates and Equilibrium
Module 4: Resources
2.4.1 Chemistry of the Air
2.4.2 Green Chemistry
Frances SmithPage 1

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Module 1
2.1.1 Basic Concepts
Formulae of Organic Compounds
- Empirical Formula: The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element
present in a compound.
- Molecular Formula: The number of atoms of each element in a molecule, e.g.
propane C3H8.
- General Formula: The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous
series. For example, the general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2.
- Structural Formula: A formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of
atoms in a molecule, e.g.…read more

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Functional groups and the naming of organic
- Homologous series: A series of organic compounds with the same functional
group, but with each successive member differing by CH2.
- Functional group: The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical
Need to know first 10 members of the alkanes homologous series:
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane, Heptane, Octane, Nonane, Decane.…read more

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- Structural isomers: Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different
structural arrangements of atoms.
- Stereoisomers: Compounds with the same structural formula but with different
arrangement of the atoms in space.
- E/Z isomerism: A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to
each C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted
rotation of the C=C bond.…read more

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Percentage Yield and Atom Economy
Percentage yield
actual amound, in mol, of product
% yield =theorectical amount, in mol, of product ×100
Atom Economy
molecular mass of the desired products
atom economy =
sum of molecular masses of all products ×100
- All addition reactions have a 100% atom economy
- The higher the atom economy the less waste products
Processes may have high % yield but this can be slow and very costly, therefore there are
compromises between the % yield and the…read more

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Alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons from Crude Oil
- Hydrocarbon: An organic compound of hydrogen and carbon only.
- Saturated hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
- Unsaturated hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple
bonds, e.g. double bonds.
- Fractional distillation: The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into
fractions which differ in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a
fractionating column.…read more

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Hydrocarbons as fuels
The combustion of alkanes
- Short-chain alkanes are valuable as clean fuels. They burn in a plentiful supply of
oxygen to for carbon dioxide and water.
- Methane is the main constituent of natural gas and is used for domestic heating and
- Complete combustion of methane: CH4 (g)+ 2O2(g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l)
- Propane and butane are easily liquefied (LPG).
- They are used in barbeques, patio heaters and portable cooking appliances.…read more

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Producing cyclic hydrocarbons
Aliphatic hydrocarbons can be converted into cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons in a process
sometimes known as reforming.
Improving fuels
- Research octane number (RON) rates how well a fuel burns. Fuels with near 100
ratings burn more efficiently. Heptane burns poorly and has an octane rating of zero.
- Branched and cyclic alkanes promote more efficient combustion than straight chains.
- Hydrogen produced during reforming is used in other chemical processes such as
ammonia and margarine production.…read more

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Halogenation of alkanes
Alkanes react with halogens in the presence of UV radiation or at a temperature of about
300°c. For example methane reacts with chlorine to produce chloromethane:
CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl
This is radical substitution. Covalent bonds are broken by Homolytic fission to form
radicals. A hydrogen atom in the alkane is substituted by a halogen atom.
Mechanism for chlorination
- Initiation: the first step in radical substitution in which free radicals are generated by
ultraviolet light.…read more

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Properties of Alkenes
- Pi( )-bond: the reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of
the bonded atoms by the sideways overlap of p-orbitals.
- Sigma( )-bond
In the formation of the double bond:
- A -bond is formed directly between to carbon atoms by the overlap of orbitals.…read more


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