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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance

(a) Explain and use the terms:
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus
Isotope Different forms of the same element, which have different mass numbers (same
number of protons but a different number of neutrons)


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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
Mass Charge Where?
Proton 1 +1 Nucleus
Neutron 1 0 Nucleus
Electron 0.0005 1 Shells

(e) Describe the structure of atoms in terms of electrons and a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons
The nucleus is in the middle of the atom and contains…

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life

(h) Recall that the nuclei of some atoms are unstable and that these atoms are radioactive; recall and explain
the different properties of , , radiations; recall that the term halflife refers to the time taken for half
the radioactive nuclei in a sample…

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
4. When the hydrogen in a star's core runs out, the temperature and pressure of the core starts to rise. In a big
enough star it'll get hot enough to fuse heavier elements , starting with helium.

(k) understand how radioactive isotopes can be…

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life

Bonding and Structure
(m) draw and interpret simple electron 'dotandcross' diagrams to show how atoms bond through ionic,
covalent and dative covalent bonds and be able to describe a simple model of metallic bonding; describe some
limitations of these models

What happens to electrons…

Page 6

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life

The dotandcross models of ionic and covalent bonding give the impression that electrons are either transferred
or shared. However most bonds aren't purely ionic or purely covalent but somewhere in between so most
compounds end up with a mixture of ionic and covalent…

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
No. of 2 3 4 3 2 5 6
No. of 0 0 0 1 2 0 0

109.5o Approx
Approx 109o
and 120o

Inorganic Chemistry and the Periodic Table
(p) recall the…

Page 8

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
Electrons on shells that are furthest away from
the nucleus are easier to remove because the
attraction is weaker

(q) recall that the position of an element in the Periodic Table is relative to its electron structure (main energy
levels or electron shells)


Page 9

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life

M Hydroxide + Sulfuric Acid > M Sulphate + Water
e.g. Barium Hydroxide + Sulfuric Acid + Barium Sulfate + Water

2(aq) + H
2SO4(aq) > MSO

4(aq) + H
2O (l)

e.g. Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2

+ BaSO4(aq) +H2

Group 2…

Page 10

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Chemistry for Life: Elements of Life
Mass Spectrometry can be used to calculate the relative atomic mass the height of the peaks (y axis) tells us the
abundance and the x axis (m/z) tells us the mass of each ratio.


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