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Chemistry Revision Notes
Unit One: Atoms, Bonds and Groups…read more

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· ISOTOPES: Atoms of the same proton number · MOLE: Amount of any substance containing
with different number of neutrons as many particles as there are carbon atoms
· ATOMIC NUMBER: Number of protons in in exactly 12g of carbon-12 isotope
nucleus of an atom · MOLAR MASS: Mass per mole of a
· MASS NUMBER: Number of protons and substance (g mol¹)
neutrons in nucleus · CONCENTRATION: Amount of solute, in
· ION: A positively or negatively charged atom mol, dissolved per 1 dm³ of solution
· RELATIVE ISOTOPIC MASS: Mass of an atom · SPECIES: Type of particle that takes part in
of an isotope compared with 1/12 of the chemical reaction
mass of an atom of carbon-12 · STOICHIOMETRY: Molar relationship
· RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS: Weighted mean between relative quantities of substances
mass of an element compared with 1/12 of taking part in a reaction
the mass of an atom of carbon-12 · ACID: Species that is a proton donor
· RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS: Weighted · BASE: Species that is a proton acceptor
mean mass of a molecule compared with · ALKALI: Type of base dissolved in water
1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 forming OH ions
· RELATIVE FORMULA MASS: Weighted mean · SALT: Any chemical compound formed from
mass of a formula unit compared with 1/12 of an acid, whose protons have been replaced
the mass of an atom of carbon-12 by metal or ammonium ions
· AVOGADRO CONSTANT, NA: Number of · CATION: Positively charged ion
atoms per mole of the carbon-1 isotope (6.02 · ANION: Negatively charged ion
x 10²³ mol…read more

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HYDRATED: Crystalline compound containing · SUCCESSIVE IONISATION ENERGIES:
water molecules Measure of energy required to remove each
electron in turn
· ANHYDROUS: Substance that doesn't contain
water molecules · 1st IONISATION ENERGY: Energy required to
remove one mole of electrons from one
mole of gaseous atoms, forming one mole
molecules that form an essential part of
of uni-positive ions in the gaseous state. X
crystalline structure of a compound
(g) X (g) + e
· OXIDATION NUMBER: Measure of number if
· 2nd IONISATION ENERGY: Energy required
electrons that an atom uses to bond with
to remove one mole of electrons from one
atoms of another element- derived from set
mole of unipositive ions in the gaseous
of rules
state. X (g) X² (g) + e
· OXIDATION: Loss of electrons (an increase in
· 3rd IONISATION ENERGY: Energy required
oxidation number)
to remove one mole of electrons from one
· REDUCTION: Gain of electrons (a decrease in mole of X² ions in the gas phase. X² (g)
oxidation number) X³ (g) + e
· REDOX REACTION: Reaction in which both · SHELL: Group of atomic orbitals with same
oxidation and reduction takes place orinciple quantum number, n.- energy levels
· REDUCING AGENT: Reagent that reduces · ATOMIC ORBITAL: Region within an atom
(adds electrons to) another species that can hold up to two electrons, with
· OXIDISING AGENT: Reagent that oxidises opposite spins
(takes electrons from) another species
· SUB-SHELL: Group of same type of atomic
· ELECTRON SHIELDING: Repulsion between orbitals (s, p, d, f) within a shell
electrons in different inner shells.
of electrons in an atom…read more

Slide 4

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IONIC BONDING: Electrostatic attraction · HYDROGEN BOND: A strong dipole-dipole
between oppositely charged ions attraction between an electron-deficient
· GIANT IONIC LATTICE: 3D structure of hydrogen atom (O-H, N-H) on one
oppositely charged ions, held together by molecule; and a lone pair of electrons on a
strong ionic bonds highly electronegative atom (H-O or H-N)
· COVALENT BONDING: Bond formed by a on a different molecule
shared pair of electrons · GIANT METALLIC LATTICE: 3D structure of
· METALLIC BONDING: Electrostatic attraction positive ions and delocalised electrons,
between positive metal ions & delocalised bonded together by strong metallic bonds
electrons · SIMPLE MOLECULAR LATTICE: 3D structure of
· DATIVE BONDING: Shared pair of electrons molecules, bonded together by weak
provided by one of the bonding atoms only intermolecular forces
· LONE PAIR: Outer-shell pair of electrons that · GIANT COVALENT LATTICE: 3D structure of
isn't involved in chemical bonding atoms, bonded together by strong covalent
· ELECTRONEGATIVITY: The ability of an atom bonds
to attract towards it the shared pair of · THERMAL DECOMPOSITION: Breaking up of
electrons in a covalent bond chemical substance with heat into at least
· PERMANENT DIPOLE-DIPOLE: Weak two chemical substance
attractive force between permanent dipoles · DISPLACEMENT REACTION: Reaction in which
in neighbouring polar molecules a more-reactive element displaces a less-
· INTERMOLECULAR FORCE: Attractive force reactive element from an aqueous solution of
between neighbouring molecules the latter's ions
· VAN DER WAALS' FORCES: Attractive forces · PRECIPITATION REACTION: Formation of a
between induced dipoles in neighbouring solid from solution during chemical reaction-
molecules when 2 (aq) solutions are mixed together…read more

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· Usually compounds of metals
· Cations (+ve ions) and anions (-ve ions) are combined
· E.g. Na with S² combine 2 : 1 NaS
Ca² with OH combine 1 : 2 Ca(OH)
Al³ with SO² combine 2 : 3 Al(SO)
Single charged anions Double charged anions Triple charged anions Cations
Hydroxide (OH) Carbonate (CO²) Phosphate (PO³) Ammonium (NH)
Hydrogen carbonate (HCO) Sulphate (SO²)
Hydrogen sulphate (HSO) Sulphite (SO²)
Nitrate (NO) Silicate (SiO²)
Mangante (MnO) Dichromate (CrO²)
Cyanide (CN) Thiosulphate (SO²)…read more

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Lithium bromide Li Br LiBr
Barium oxide Ba² O² BaO
Calcium fluoride Ca² F CaF
Potassium sulphide K S² KS
Potassium carbonate K CO² KCO
Aluminium sulphate Al³ SO² Al(SO)
Silver nitrate Ag NO AgNO
Magnesium hydroxide Mg² OH Mg(OH)
Potassium hydroxide K OH KOH
Calcium phosphate Ca² PO³ Ca(PO)
Hydrochloric acid H Cl HCl
Sulphuric acid H SO² HSO
Nitric acid H NO HNO
Ammonium sulphate NH SO² (NH)SO…read more

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layla hassan

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