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Michael Argyle
Four times as powerful
It can signal emotional states, attitudes, assists
speech or can act as a replacement for speech.
A shared social understanding can often make
non verbal more effective…read more

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Body Language
This can mean posture, hand gestures, proxemics and
touch.
Edward Hall
Intimate distance = 0-0.5 m
Personal distance = 0.5 ­ 1.2 m
Social distance = 1.2 ­ 4.0 m
Public distance = 4.0 ­ 10.0 m…read more

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Facial Expressions
Michael Argyle (1984)
There are six basic emotions that are universal for all
cultures ; happiness, surprise , fear , sadness , anger
and disgust.
Other expressions are culturally specific. ie eyebrow
flashing is indecent in Japan but acceptable in
England.
Japanese emoticons emphasize the eyes ^_^
English emoticons emphasize the mouth…read more

Slide 5

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G . Duchenne
Research has shown that some facial expressions
can be false. eg. Smiling.
We are able to smile even when we are not happy.
Electrical stimulation can contort facial muscles
to make a false smile.
A real smile involves muscles around the eyes and
mouth to correctly raise the cheeks.…read more

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Argyle's Accuracy Scores
Happy ­ 79%
Research shows that we are quite
Surprise ­ 65% good at recognizing facial
expressions, however the pictures
were of actors, which may have
Fear ­ 62% affected the results.
Anger ­ 55%
Sad ­ 57%
Disgust ­ 54%…read more

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