Elements of verbal language
Syntax - the arrangement of words in sentences
Semantics - allocates meaning to the word sign through structure
Competence - understanding that enables the person to speak the language
Performance - speaks the words.
Lexical Choice - the words that are chosen to convey the message. How we structure our sentences, the different types of sentences depends on who we are talking to. Would you as a health professional when talking to a patient choose to use the word heart or cardiac?
Denotative and Connotative Language
Denotative - an objective definition, something you would find in the dictionary.
Connotative - a subjective definition, emotional meaning and person association to a word.
Verbal Strategies that effect Communication
Cultural terms/dialects -phases with a double meaning.
Slang - informal non-standard language.
Euphemism - a polite word or phrase to substitute for a taboo or offensive term.
Sub languages- varies from general language and is used by a particular group.
Technical language - medical jargon used by health professionals.
Types of Communication used when Talking to Patien
Advising and Evaluating - offers an opinion/advise which are based on the nurses own opinions and have an evaluative base.
Analysing and Interpreting - reaches a deeper level of meaning the nurse knows what the patient is really feeling and thinking without verbalising on it, cannot build relationships.
Reassuring and Supporting - need to be realistic, reassurance and support, need to take care because it can appear patronizing, don't use cliches as if fails to acknowledges the patients concern.
Questioning and Probing - use to gather information and explore situations further in order to understand the client through various methods.
Paraphrasing and Understanding - rephrase what the patient has said allows for conformation and validation of what has been said.
- Facial movements - moste expressive physical aspect, expresses emothon. The face not only discloses specefic emotions it telegraphs what really matters to a person.
- Gaze and Eye contact - the eyes convey important information about how your relationship with another person is fairing. Can be strongly influenced by cultural expectations.
- Body Posture and Movement (Kinesics) - body posture reflects the situation and feelings being experienced. There are times when we try and contol the expression of emotion that is communicatied through our non-verbals.
- Touch (Haptics) - basic human need be dictated by cultrual practices.
- Space (Proxemics) - how you use space can manipulate, identify and control communication
- Use of time (Chronemics) - who waits for who
- Appearance and Dress - social status, occupation, finances, group affilitation and attrativeness.
- Paralanguage - tone of voice, pitch, pauses, volume, rate of speaking, position of emphasis, use of silence.