Nervous Communication (CIE A2 Spec)

Feeling a bit shaky on your nervous communication, take a flick through this power point to help you snap your knowledge up..

It would be worth taking a look at a few of the animations on youtube for action potential propagation before you enter the action potential side of the slide. 

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The nervous system carries messages around
the body using specialized cells called
Neurones convey their messages using
electrical impulses
This method is faster and more precise than
using hormones.…read more

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The nervous system is made up of two parts:
1. Central nervous system (CNS)
2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sensory neurone Motor Neurone
Sensory Organ Effector
Stimulus Response
· The central nervous system comprises of the brain and spinal chord.
· The peripheral nervous system comprises of the nerves and gangilia
outside the brain and spinal chord
· The human nervous system controls everything from breathing to
producing digestive enzymes to memory and intelligence.…read more

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1. Motor neurons - these carry a message to a muscle,
gland, or other effector. They are said to be efferent, i.e. they
carry the message away from the central nervous system.
2. Sensory neurons - these carry a message in to the
CNS. They are afferent, i.e. going toward the brain or spinal
3. Interneuron - (a.k.a. association neuron, connecting
neuron) - these neurons connect one neuron with another. For
example in many reflexes interneurons connect the sensory
neurons with the motor neurons.…read more

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Cell body ­ contains a well developed nucleolus and many organelles such as lysosomes
and mitochondria. There is no mitiotic apparatus in neurones more than six months old.
However regeneration can occur.
Axon ­ is the communication route between the cell body and the axon terminals.
Dentrites ­ are extentions which provide a large surface area to receive information which
they then pass on to the cell body. The plasma has a high density of chemically gated ion
channels, important in impulse transmission.
Schwann Cells ­ is a glial cell which encircles the axon. When the two ends of the cell
meet, overlapping occurs which pushes the nucleus and cytoplasm to the outside layer.
Myelin Sheath ­ is composed of 20 ­ 30 layers of Schwann cell membrane. The
phospholipid content of the sheath offers electrical insulation -> saltatory impulse
conduction. The sheaths are not complete until late childhood so infants often have slow
responses/poor coordination. 1 out of every 3 nerve axons are insulated.
Nodes of Ranvier ­ are unmyelinated segments of the neurone. Since these are
uninsulated, ion movements may take place which effectively lead to action potentials
`leaping' from one node to another -> saltatory conduction.
Synaptic knobs/end bulb - is important in nerve impulse conduction from one neurone to
another or from a neurone to an effector. They contain membrane enclosed sacs, synaptic
vesicles, which store neurotransmitters prior to release and diffusion to the post synaptic
membrane…read more

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