• Created by: Frances
  • Created on: 30-05-18 02:56


It is clear that the enormous difference in deaths cannot be explained by magnitude, time of day or focal depth. Also, the epicentre of the Haiti earthquake was 25 km from the city whereas that of the 2011 Christchurch earthquake was only 10 km from the city centre. However, Port-au-Prince had a population $2.5 million, whereas only 400 000 lived in Christchurch.

The Haiti earthquake


DATE & LOCAL TIME;january 2010, 16:53



Devastation resulted from a tiny fragment of the Caribbean plate moving eastwards along a fault on the destructive plate boundary with the North American plate The shallow depth of the movement caused much damage from shaking, which lasted for nearly a minute.

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Effects on lives and property

  • The Haiti government's estimate of 316000 deaths is believed to be too high: other estimates suggest 200 000. As people were buried quickly in mass graves to reduce the incidence of disease, it was difficult to keep proper records. More than 100 000 are estimated to have been injured and up to 1.5 million left homeless.

  • Hospitals and government buildings were destroyed, as well as 250 000 residences and 30 000 commercial buildings.

  • Power and water supplies were disrupted and phone communications lost.

  • Incoming aid was delayed because the international airport's control tower and the port were destroyed and many roads were blocked.

  • Looting and violence was a problem for relief workers trying to keep stocks of food and water safe and to distribute them.

  • More than 3000 died in 2010 in cholera outbreaks caused by poor sanitation in the temporary tented camps. Outbreaks continued and, by 2015, cholera had killed about 8600 people.

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Reasons for the severity of the earthquake

  • It struck the densely-populated capital city.

  • Liquefaction: much of the city was built on loose sediments, which allowed the seismic waves to amplify.

  • The international airport had only one runway, limiting the number of planes carrying aid and aid workers that could land.

  • Haiti is a very poor country and without building regulations, so most infrastructure had been constructed cheaply. Buildings were not reinforced and many had no foundations. Heavy concrete buildings collapsed because they had little steel in their support columns.

  • Many people lived in shacks made of flimsy materials on very steep, unstable slopes.

  • The earthquake was unexpected and the country unprepared because the last damage from an earthquake was in 1770.

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  • Haiti had no army and few emergency service vehicles or staff to give immediate assistance.

It is clear that the perception of risk from an earthquake was minimal, but the government acted on the cholera risk by relocating many people to areas with better sanitation.


Haiti had poor resilience as recovery depended largely on overseas aid. Three years after the earthquake, just over half the debris had been cleared and about 280 000 people were still living in camps, some of which lacked flushing toilets. One-fifth of the population lost their jobs because clothing factories, the largest employer, had been destroyed. Despite the extensive scale of the devastation, the economic cost of the earthquake is believed to be relatively small, less than $US9 billion. Few people were insured against losses, so the biggest cost was for rebuilding.

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The Christchurch earthquakes

LOCATION; Christchurch, New Zealand

DATE & LOCAL TIME;September 2010 - 04:35, February 2011 - 12:51

MAGNITUDE;7.1 , 6.3

DEATHS; 0 , 185

Almost all the damage was done by the 2011 aftershock earthquake, partly because the higher magnitude 2010 earthquake had already weakened and damaged structures, so less shake was needed to cause collapse. Some parts of the city had been damaged by liquefaction. Also the 2011 earthquake focus was shallower, closer to the city centre and at Tuesday lunchtime when many people would be out, rather than in bed on a Saturday morning, as in the 2010 event.

Both earthquakes resulted from deformation along different thrust faults at the destructive plate boundary where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Australian plate.

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Effects on lives and property of the 2011 earthquake

  • Vertical and horizontal shaking at the same time destroyed 1000 major buildings. The shaking intensity was more than four times that in Haiti, and one of the highest ever recorded.

  • Liquefaction undermined the foundations of many buildings and destroyed houses built on soft sand by the river in the eastern suburbs. The tallest hotel, the Grand Chancellor, dropped on one side by one metre.

  • Numerous aftershocks made recovery difficult.

  • More than half the 185 deaths occurred inside the TV building, which collapsed and caught fire. At least 1500 people were injured.

  • Liquefaction forced road surfaces upwards, slowing rescue efforts.

  • The total economic cost of the earthquake is about losses. $US 40 billion, mostly for rebuilding and insurance

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  • The international airport was undamaged, so overseas aid arrived quickly.

  • Many water and sewage systems were damaged and power cuts affected many homes. However, many services were restored within a week and most within a fortnight. Phone communications were only disrupted for a short time.

Perception of the risk: Action by government agencies gave high resilience earthquake: and considerably less severe effects than in the Haiti earthquake :

  • Strict building codes, so modern buildings were built to withstand earthquakes of magnitude which occur once every 500 years.

  • Earlier planning for emergencies, so a state of emergency was declared immediately and police, fire and defence forces, together with other agencies, began coordinated rescue work very quickly, aided by satellite imagery provided by USGS (US Geological Survey).

  • Electricity and mains water supplies were repaired quickly. Thousands of portable toilets and showers were distributed. Fully-serviced mobile homes housed the homeless until rebuilding and repairs were finished.

All new buildings were made earthquake-proof with a maximum height of 28 metres.

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Prediction and monitoring: • September 1985 - a hazard map was drawn up showing locations in danger from ash and rock falls and lahars, including the dangerous location of the town of Armero but many people remained unaware of it, as the map was not well-distributed.

October - scientists warned of a great risk of lahars and advised local authorities to prepare for an evacuation.

November 13 - seismographs registered strong earthquakes but the people monitoring them failed to recognise the warnings.

The eruption hazards : • Ash eruptions started at 15.00 on 13 November but, as they stopped after four hours, people were told to stay indoors rather than to evacuate.

• Soon after 21.00h, a 30 km high ash cloud shot up. Civil defence workers tried to warn officials in Armero but failed to make contact. People in the town were advised locally there was nothing to worry about.

• The eruption melted the summit snow and glaciers, causing thick lahars to race down narrow river valleys at about 60 km an hour, making river volumes four times larger.

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Effects on lives and people

The first lahar, boosted by water from a lake that it passed through, hit Armero only two and a half hours after the eruption. Others quickly followed, including one 30 m deep. People were suffocated by the mud and crushed by collapsing buildings. The eruption caused 23000 deaths (20 000 in Armero), the second highest from a volcanic eruption in the 20th century after Mt Pelée, and the highest caused by lahars. Rescue efforts were slow because the mud was very deep and it was impossible to move across it without sinking in. Also, roads and bridges leading to Armero had been cut. Hospitals were overwhelmed and some people died because of the lack of antibiotics to treat infected wounds. The tragedy cost the country $US 7 billion.

Risk perception

Nevado del Ruiz had been dormant for 69 years ana, as there had been no significant eruption for 140 years officials were reluctant to take expensive prevention measures. Inadequate preparation was the main tas for the deaths, together with a failure to act prompt when it was clear that an eruption was imminent. at the time of the eruption the government and am were busy dealing with a civil war.

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The magma supplying  this stratovolcano results be subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate. The amount of ash ejected by Nevado del Ruiz was only 3 per cent of that from Mount St Helens in 1980. Mount St Helens also produced the biggest volcanic landslide in historical time.

Prediction, monitoring and perception of risk

The US Geological Survey keeps volcanoes in the country under close observation. They draw up hazard maps and monitor gas emissions. Ground deformation was monitored using lasers in 1980, but is done by GPS now. Many seismometers record the magnitude of earth movements, sending the measurements direct to the University of Washington Geophysics Laboratory. These enable fairly accurate predictions of eruptions.

In March 1980, shallow earthquakes on the north side of the volcano were recognised as being different from the thousands that occur every year. The harmonic tremor of continuous rhythmic earthquakes often precedes volcanic eruptions, so extra seismographs were installed and emergency services, guided by the hazard maps, worked on plans to evacuate. Ash eruptions followed for a few weeks and the north flank of the volcano started to bulge. People were not allowed within 13 km of the summit. Most property owners moved away and emergency evacuation plans were made for communities further down the valleys.

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By the end of April the bulge had grown into a sizeable dome.

The eruption hazards and their effects on lives and people

  • On May 18 the north flank broke open and, with the summit of the volcano, fell downhill as a massive rock landslide 2.3 km3 in volume. It left a new horseshoe-shaped crater, 2km wide, 3 km long and 600 m deep, open at the north end. The powerful landslide was channelled down valleys and swept over ridges. Most of the rock was deposited in the North Fork Toutle River Valley.

  • When the landslide stopped moving 22 km from the volcano, its water content, together with melted snow and ice from the glaciers on the slopes of Mount St Helens, rose to its surface and mixed with loose rock material to form destructive lahars, which ripped out eight bridges and cut evacuation routes.

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  • So much debris reached the Columbia River that ocean-going ships could not sail on it because the previously 200 m wide, deep channel was reduced to less than 70 m wide and 3 m deep.

  • Immediately after the landslide, an enormous cloud of gas, rock, ash and ice blasted laterally and upwards. Hot pyroclastic flows drained rapidly down the volcano's sides, spreading over and beyond the landslide to cover 550 km2.

  • Helicopters rescued more than 100 people. Only 57 died, including a geologist monitoring the hazard and people who refused to leave the area.

  • Ash had to be cleared from roads.

  • People suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder for years afterwards.

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The city of Portland developed before seismic gap theory predicted it is likely to experience a magnitude 9.0 earthquake, during which few of its present buildings, bridges, roads and services would escape severe devastation. A map has been published showing the large areas of the city built on ground likely to liquefy and also where landslips are a known hazard. The School of Civil and Construction Engineering at Oregon State University is coordinating a programme with representatives of the vital services - transport, gas, electricity and water - to prepare the city. Engineer geologists have begun a race against time to research, plan and undertake hard engineering to hold back steep slopes adjoining main roads and to strengthen structures, such as bridges, where it is cost-effective to do so. Others are likely to be rebuilt away from faults and ground prone to liquefaction. Buildings will need very deep foundations. The whole process could take fifty years.

Public awareness is spread via the media, public meetings and information packs for households about how to prepare for an earthquake and the action to take if one occurs.

Three active volcanoes, Mt Hood, Mt Adams and Mt St Helens, are near but this combination of tectonic hazards does not stop businesses and people from relocating to Portland.

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Mam Tor is believed to have the largest landslip (slump) in Europe. It has totally physical causes: the mountain is composed of alternating permeable sandstones and impermeable shales which dip slightly towards the valley. The shales (very finely bedded stones) can be crumbled easily by a person's hand so have very little strength. Their upper layer becomes slippery when wet and provides a lubricated laver for the rock above to slip down over it. About 3000 years ago, water saturated the sandstone beds adding weight, until the stress was so much that the rock mass broke along, and slid down a rotational concave slip plane.

It left a 70-metre-high slip face with a typical arcuate shape and an up-tilted toe at its foot. There have been many slips since and they still occur. The most significant one was a hazard in 1979 when the major road between the cities of Sheffield and Manchester, which crossed the toe of the slip and had been repaired many times after smaller slips, was cut and abandoned, as it was no longer economic to repair it. Heavy vehicles now have to take a long detour.

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The large scale of the slip is evident in Fig. 9.33. Each layer of the exposed remains of the road represents a repair after a slip. At least five are visible and in places the repairs are two metres thick. Broken shale is seen in the centre left where the material is still slipping, aided by a spring, which issues where the brown vegetation is. Wet shale is very slippery, so layers above easily slide over wet layers below them. In the face of the scar, composed of thin beds of permeable sandstone and shale, small mudflows indicate where the wet shale has turned back to the mud it once was.

Below the toe is a hummocky debris flow consisting of material from the landslip, which threatens to bury farm buildings in its path. The landslip and debris flow together are more than a kilometre long. The average flow movement is 250 mm per year, but is faster in wetter years. Recent research revealed that it has moved continuously by up to 500 mm per year since its formation.

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In April 2013 Bingham Copper mine in Utah, USA, experienced massive landslides when more than 13 million tons of rock and rubble moved three kilometres into the open pit. The slide was of solid bedrock that broke away from the upper half of the slope, together with waste rock from the mine that had been piled up above it, its weight putting additional stress on the slope. The rock slid down the shear plane, before free falling and flowing into the pit. The tremendous speed at which the rockslide hit the bottom caused a 2.5 magnitude earthquake.

Fortunately, slow movement in the side of the pit was noticed beforehand and sensors and radar monitored it for more than two months. The mining was stopped when movement reached 5 cm a day and the workforce was moved out of danger shortly before the landslide.

Although the landslide is thought to have been along a weak, thin, sedimentary layer within quartzite rock, possibly aided by an old fault line, it could not have happened without quarrying steepening the slope.

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Effect on lives and property

The economic disruption made it one of the most expensive landslides, as the workforce had to be laid off while the mine was made safe. Buildings and the main access road were swept away and costly mining equipment crushed. The mining company, Kennecott Utah Copper, spent three million dollars on remote controlled bulldozers to clear the rubble safely. Production for the year was reduced by about a half. The workforce had to be reduced, involving redundancy pay-outs. The local authority also lost a considerable amount in tax revenue, which the company would normally have paid.

This landslide shows that large rock slides caused by slope failure are predictable with considerable accuracy if warning signs are noticed and monitored. However, this slide had not been expected to fall as far as the lower part of the open pit.

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This area suffered the highest death toll from mass movements in recent times in December 1999 when approximately 30 000 people died in towns along Caribbean coast. The actual number is unknown because many people were swept out to sea.Mass movements funnelled down steep valleys on the north side of the Sierra de Avila mountain range, which runs parallel to the coast, onto the towns below.

Factors influencing this mass movement hazard were both natural and human:

  • The coastal area had become densely populated and mainly urban, despite being frequently affected by slides and flows. No one survived in the many shanty towns where flimsy shacks were easily destroyed.

  • Many of the coastal towns were built on old debris flows

  • The very steep mountains behind the narrow coastalslips have many slopes steeper than the angle of repose for loose materials.

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  • The metamorphic rocks have planes of weakness along which landslides will occur where they are inclined towards lower areas.

  • December 1999 was extremely wet, as 911 mm fell 52 hours, equivalent to a year's average rainfall.

  • The slopes had lost their protection and stability because trees had been cleared by local people.

The landslides and their effect on lives and property

Thousands of landslides triggered by the rain affected a 60 km stretch of coast. As the rock and soil slid  down the mountains, added water turned them into debris flows, with high densities of rock, including large boulders, and mud. These moved very fast and were very destructive.

After the town of Caraballeda had suffered a similar experience in 1951, the channel that had been followed by the debris flow then was lined with concrete in an attempt to guide any future flow safely  to sea. However, the 1999 flow left the channel at a bend and ploughed through the town, destroying houses and the first two floors of apartments. As further landslides were possible, 100 000 survivors were evacuated immediately.

All public services were lost from many areas and rebuilding has been slow. Thousands were still homeless nine years after the event and the value of surviving property had fallen by 70 per cent.

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A super-typhoon is a storm in the north-west Pacific with sustained wind speeds of 242 km/h or more

Development: Haiyan grew from a tropical storm as it moved westwards, stirring up 15-metre-high waves. It reached its maximum intensity as it made landfall at Guiuan on the east coast of the central Philippines as the 25th typhoon of the season. It was so intense it was off the Dvorak scale at 8.1.

Prediction, monitoring and perception of risk: Alerted by satellite images and the track of the typhoon, public storm warnings were issued and shelters opened but there were not enough for everyone and some of them were damaged beyond use by the storm. Many were very basic and not well stocked with essential supplies. Only half a million people were able to use them. The government advised evacuation but did not make it mandatory, so many stayed in their homes because they were afraid of looting. Many lives were Saved by the major of Guiuan who constantly urged the residents to evacuate. The army, air force, navy and hospitals were on standby and disaster response teams were sent to areas expected to be affected.

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Primary and secondary impacts on lives and property

Fortunately, the system moved so quickly across the country that rainfall totals did not produce the devastating floods and landslides that usually cause the most damage in Philippine typhoons. Although mudflows were less severe than usual, coastal areas were described as wastelands of mud and mudflows and debris slides destroyed many buildings in Guiuan.

Nearly all the damage was caused by the storm surge when Haiyan moved on to make landfall on the islands of Samar and Leyte. It was made more dangerous because Tacloban, a city on land less than 5 m above sea level on the island of Leyte, is on a bay where water was funnelled, causing a greater surge. An inhabitant interviewed on television commented, 'We survived the wind, but could not survive the water, and described it as like a tsunami'. The wall of water was over 7 m high and caused almost total devastation, especially in the shanty areas. The first floor of Tacloban City Convention Centre was submerged, drowning many evacuees being housed there. About 90 per cent of the buildings with wooden walls in the poorer parts of Tacloban were destroyed. Even well-built concrete structures had damaged roofs and windows and some were highly damaged. Many people drowned in the streets and many others were injured, as roads became rivers. The floods also swept away bridges and deposited large ships on top of the devastation.

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Few buildings in the worst-hit rural areas were left standing. Fallen trees, roofs and tossed-up cars blocked roads. Power lines were destroyed, plunging the area into darkness; four provinces, including Leyte, had no power. Rotting corpses contaminated water supplies and spread disease. Survivors were without shelter, food, water, sanitation and fuel.

As the powerful winds had ripped down telephone lines, the inhabitants were unable to contact the outside world. Satellite images were invaluable for determining which areas were in most urgent need of assistance, as an archipelago over 7000 islands needed checking. Providing aid to them presented massive problems. Supplies stockpiled for emergency use had been decimated a month before the typhoon when a 7.2 earthquake struck the island of Bohol; where about 5000 people were still living in tents.

After days without relief, desperate people looted for food and water to survive. Tacloban airport had been badly damaged by the storm surge and had lost its electricity supply, so only 20 daylight flights a day could bring in relief supplies and evacuate those in greatest need. Distributing aid was difficult and slow also because of blocked roads. The danger of attack from people desperate to intercept aid supplies caused aid agencies to delay going in until security was improved. Some islands are normally accessible only by ship and plane and planes could not land until runways were cleared of debris.

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Aid finally reached Tacloban seven days after the cyclone but it was nine days before food was available for distribution. People in the devastated and remote village of Guiuan waited longer. The disaster relief system failed because of a breakdown in power and communications.

Long-term effects

Mangrove forests were replanted along the coast, replacing those destroyed or previously felled because they protect against storm surges and strong winds.

The scale of the disaster was greater because Tacloban's population had trebled in recent years. despite the east coast being known to be the most hazardous for typhoon damage. Afterwards, many inhabitants of Tacloban and Leyte moved to less affected areas. About 20 000 went to Manila and the city of Catbalogan's population doubled because of the influx of refugees. Agriculture, the mainstay of the economy, was badly affected and temporarily slowed the growth of the economy.

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Prediction and monitoring: Cyclone Yasi, the fourth cyclone of the 2011 season to hit Australia, began as a tropical low pressure system near Fiji. It grew in intensity as it moved west before turning west-south-west over the warm South Pacific Ocean. It was expected to make landfall somewhere in the state of Queensland along a 300 km stretch of coast that included the cities of Cairns and Townsville, but people as far south as Brisbane were told to be prepared for dangerous flash floods. Heavy summer rain caused by La Niña conditions had fallen for the previous three months, resulting in damaged buildings and 35 deaths in river floods in the Brisbane area. More rain on already-saturated ground was likely to be disastrous. Only three days before Cyclone Yasi's landfall, Cyclone Anthony had uprooted trees and damaged power lines in Queensland.

Perception of risk

  • Rigorous building standards had been enforced after a cyclone in Darwin in 1974 killed 74 people.

  • The public were informed through the media to prepare for an event worse than anything previously experienced. Storm surge forecasts were given for a high tide situation.

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  • People in low-lying areas along the coast from Cairns to Townsville were told to evacuate and 29000 did, including hospital patients moved by the military.

  • Schools, universities, airports and ports were closed.

Primary impacts on lives and property

Yasi hit as a category 5 cyclone, destroying the anemometer, radar equipment and communications with the outside world on Willis Island. It moved on to the mainland, affecting 540 km of coast with 400 000 inhabitants, but missed the main cities. It made landfall at midnight at the small settlements of Mission Beach, Cardwell and Tully. Hundreds of homes and businesses, including strongly-built brick buildings, were badly damaged. Strong winds and a 7-metre-high storm surge caused damage up to 300 km inland. Roofs were ripped off and Tully High School was destroyed. At least 226 000 properties were left without power and the water supply system in Townsville failed.  Expensive boats and yachts were destroyed. However, because people had followed advice to evacuate, there were few injuries and only one death.

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The impact was less severe than it could have been because:

  • Yasi turned south just before landfall into a region with low population density, missing Cairns.

  • It moved at an unusually rapid speed (35 km/h), which limited rainfall amounts and the length of time structures were battered by the winds.

  • As the storm surge did not coincide with high tide, it was 2 m lower than it would have been.

Yasi maintained cyclone strength until more than 700 km from the coast, where it was downgraded to a tropical storm near Mt Isa. It was the costliest Australian cyclone as banana and sugar cane fields were extensively damaged; the state's main exports were lost, including 75 per cent of Australia's banana crop. Estimates put the losses to agriculture, mining and local government at US$ 2 billion, with a further US$ 1 billion cost to the tourist industry.

Record-breaking daily rainfall totals were received over a wide area of Queensland. River floods were extensive and many roads were cut. The highest totals fell from the cloud band south of the eye. Mission Beach recorded the highest daily total of 471 mm and most places had more than 200 mm.

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There was little need for urgent relief because of the very good planning by the authorities and the sensible response of residents to warnings and advice. The main problem was to deliver emergency supplies to the many communities isolated by the flooding. Power supplies were restored quickly and the military helped with the clear-up operation. Nearly 3000 km of road had to be repaired and the railway rebuilt.

Secondary impacts resulting from the primary impacts

  • As parks and forests were extensively damaged, the cassowary, an endangered bird species, lost much of its rainforest habitat and food sources.

  • Strict building regulations were put in place to make new coastal properties storm surge proof.

  • Heavy rain damaged the Great Barrier Reef off the coast, as polluted run-off caused a population explosion of Crown of Thorns starfish, which eat coral polyps.

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The people of Queensland were remarkably resilient. Most of the infrastructure was repaired quickly. One year after Cyclone Yasi, farmers were growing bananas and sugar cane again. Bank loans and insurance payouts enabled most people to rebuild their homes and re-start their businesses. In comparison, the resilience of the US city of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina was considerably less than that of Queensland, partly because many people were too poor to have insurance. A year after the disaster the population of New Orleans was only half what it was before.

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This tornado was one of the worst in recent years in USA. .

Risk perception

The Oklahoma Department of Emergency Management advises inhabitants to:

  • keep informed about the weather by listening to local weather forecasts and to have a battery-operated NOAA Weather Radio, which has a warning alarm feature

  • sign up for free cell phone (mobile phone) or email alerts

  • plan well ahead, knowing what to do to keep safe

  • get inside a strong building when a tornado threatens. Go to its lowest floor: preferably a basement. Keep as far away from windows, doors and outside walls as possible

  • cover up to protect from flying or falling debris. If possible, wear a hard hat

  • avoid being in a mobile home or vehicle.

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Many homes have reinforced underground storm shelters but these are too expensive for the poorer people in the community. Schools have weather safety hows and annual drills.

Not everybody takes notice of the warnings because out 75 per cent of them prove to be false and ople do not like wasting time. However, it is likely that most people in Moore would have taken the ning seriously because the fastest wind ever recorded on Earth was during a tornado there in 1999, when 36 people were killed by w reached 486 km/h. The suburb's population was better prepared as a result of their past experience.

Primary and secondary impacts on lives and property of the super tornado on May 20 2013

The F5 'monster' touched down outside Oklahoma City 16 minutes after the warning was issued. The mayor estimated that the warning saved about 1000 lives. After touching down and tossing horses into air, it headed east-north-east into Moore, where enormous damage. Most tornadoes are very localised, but this one was an unusually wide wedge type so, instead of destroying a street, it flattened whole housing estates, reducing two- and three-storey buildings to piles of sticks. It also destroyed two primary schools. The first one was damaged that it is incredible no one sheltering here died.

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The tornado had strengthened to 320 km/h when it reached the second school, which had no shelter. It caused the greatest loss of life when the roof tore off and a wall collapsed, destroying the hall, the safest area, where the children were sheltering. Moore hospital, a cinema and bowling alley were also damaged and fires broke out. Cars were tossed in the air and facades stripped from buildings. Power lines left lying across roads and pavements created obstacles to movement and danger from power outages.

The tornado was on the ground for 45 minutes, leaving a path of devastation 27 km long and 2.4 km wide. There were 24 deaths (including seven at the primary school), 237 injuries, 2500 homes demolished or damaged and a total of 10000 people affected. Gas and water supplies were cut.

A state of emergency was declared and disaster assistance agreed by the US government. Emergency workers from nearby states searched with sniffer dogs for survivors and cleared wreckage that lay over underground shelters. They were hindered by the loss of telephone communications, as lines had been brought down and cell phone networks were jammed as so many people were trying to use them.

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Power was restored to the hospital quickly. Doctors and nurses were brought in and volunteers with aid organisations served food and helped people search for belongings. The Moore tornado was not accompanied by a large hailstorm but the day before Moore was devastated, a tornado with hailstones up to 10.8 cm in diameter had struck Shawnee, another suburb of Oklahoma City and completely destroyed a mobile home park.

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The Philippine islands have many typhoons because they are located to the west of a huge area of warm water in the Pacific Ocean. As the case study of super-typhoon Haiyan showed, they experience problems in sustainably managing an environment made hazardous by flooding and typhoons but have some success in reducing the danger from volcanic eruptions.

Problems of sustainable management

As the Philippines is a poor country and a multi-hazard  location, it has to balance what to spend on disaster resistant infrastructure with which basic services to  provide. Consequently, many schools and hospitals are not built to withstand hazards and many sustainable management methods are too expensive to employ. The country's population has risen from 19 million in 1950 to almost 100 million, so increased deaths are inevitable as an increasing number of people live in vulnerable locations.

Some of the severity of the frequent flooding has been blamed on inadequate drainage systems, but deforestation has been more damaging. The original cover of tropical rainforest, the barrier to landslides and mudflows, has been almost entirely cleared for export income. After disastrous flooding, landslides and typhoon deaths in 2011. the government, like several governments before, banned any new cutting of natural forests - but large amounts of illegal logging still occurs.

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The need to use funds for restoration and recovery of each of the 20 or more typhoons that afflict the country each year continues the cycle of poverty. There are no resources left to put in place measures to protect against the next disaster. The country lacks funds to construct many expensive canalised channels which would move flood waters away quickly.

Whereas many emergency shelters, well-stocked with food and water, are set up within easy reach of communities in HICs, they are few and more spread out in poorer countries like the Philippines. Few people can afford insurance to cover possible losses. The country also does not have the same amount of technology or technological knowledge available as a rich country.

The eruption of Mt Pinatubo, Philippines, June 1991

Mt Pinatubo is a stratovolcano on the island of Luzon where the South China Sea plate, part of the Eurasian plate, subducts eastwards under the Philippine Sea plate.

Luzon is a very densely populated island, with one million people living within 30 km of the volcano. It had not erupted in 500 years, so it is remarkable that the second biggest eruption of the 20th century caused relatively small loss of life. The first sign of activity was in April 1991 when many small earthquakes accompanied the emission of thousands of tonnes of noxious sulphur dioxide gas.

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On 15 June there was a cataclysmic explosion of 5 cubic km of material. The ash cloud rose 35 km into the air and the typhoon affecting the area at the time blew ash in all directions, covering a very wide area. Pyroclastic flows of hot gas and ash moved at high speed down the slopes and giant lahars swept rapidly down valleys onto the lowlands as intense typhoon rains mixed with ash deposits.

Impacts on lives and property

Only 847 people were killed, 300 by roofs collapsing under the weight of wet ash accumulations, 100 by lahars and the rest from disease due to poor sanitation in the evacuation centres. Over 1 million people lost their homes and the cost of the eruption was about $US 700 million.

Droplets of sulphuric acid formed in the ash cloud and caused $US 100 million damage to flying aircraft. Manila airport closed for a time.

As annual rainfalls of up to 4000 mm occur on the volcano, lahars removed about half the deposits on the slopes during the next four rainy seasons. They caused more destruction than the eruption by burying towns and the lowlands under 3 cubic km of material in four years, making 200 000 people homeless, destroying the 1991 harvest, roads and bridges. The buried farmland was unusable for many years.

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Reasons for the unexpectedly low loss of life

Prediction, monitoring and risk perception successfully kept the death toll small.

  • In March 1991 scientists installed seismometers, tilt meters and other monitoring equipment on the volcano. They drew hazard maps and geologists studied the area and discovered that lahars had been a hazard in the past.

  • The population was informed that a serious threat existed. Daily bulletins about the alert level were issued on TV, radio and in newspapers.

  • On April 7, people living within 10 km of the volcano were evacuated.

  • On June 7, scientists warned that a major eruption was imminent. People were evacuated from the zone within 10-20 km of the volcano.

  • On June 13, people were evacuated from the 20-40km zone.

  • 200 000 people were evacuated to the Velodrome in Quezon City, one of the evacuee camps provided by the government.

  • Soon after the eruption, a new lahar hazard map was produced and a system to monitor and warn of future lahars was established.

Monitoring and preparation before the eruption was thought to have saved at least 5000 lives. Large potential financial losses were prevented by moving aircraft and other expensive equipment to safe areas.

As the total monitoring and preparation costs were only $US 56 million, the benefits of it far outweighed the costs. This illustrates that hazards in countries like the Philippines are best dealt with by accurate predictions whenever possible

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In the last 20 years there has been an enormous effort to conserve coral reefs in Fiji - a group of tropical islands in the South Pacific Sea. All the islands are surrounded by coral reefs, two-thirds of which are thought to be at risk.

The reefs are vitally important to Fiji for bothenvironmental and economic reasons. They are very rich ecosystems with great biodiversity. Fiji's 300 species of coral are home to almost 2000 species of fish, including sharks and tuna and many shellfish (such as giant clams). Endangered turtle species also live there. The reef ecosystem has links with bigger ecosystems through the food chain, like this simple example: plankton → coral → parrot fish → larger fish (e.g. snapper) → humans

As everywhere, Fiji's reefs are important barriers to storm waves - reducing their impacts on the land. The plants and animals in the reef ecosystem are also being researched as possible future sources of medicines. The reefs are of enormous importance to Fiji's economy. Both subsistence and commercial fishing provide good livings. Some islanders have also earned money by selling broken-off pieces of coral for use in aquariums. The colourful reefs and their beautiful marine life also attracts many tourists, especially as Fiji is a stopover point for people who want to break up the long flight across the Pacific Ocean.

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In Fiji the reefs are also of cultural importance and the local people hold ceremonies to thank them. They have long been aware of the importance of the reefs to their lives and have traditionally regulated their use. For example, they have banned fishing in certain areas when stocks have been threatened by over-fishing.

Why are reef conservation measures needed in Fiji?

There are both human and natural causes of coral destruction.

Human causes

Corals are extremely sensitive organisms that can die if touched. Despite measures by local people, they have been affected by over-fishing, as well as by boat and anchor damage. Fiji was also one of the world's largest exporters of coral and coral fish for aquariums. Tourists walking on the coral and diving and snorkelling among the reefs have also caused damage. The population of Fiji is rising rapidly and most people live around the coasts. The development of settlements has led to harmful sediment, sewage and other pollutants being washed out into the reefs.

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Natural causes

Every three or four years, Fiji is battered by cyclones which generate destructive waves that break the coral. These storms can also lead to large amounts of nitrates and phosphates reaching the reefs from run-off from agricultural land, which causes the number of Crown Thorns starfish (which feed on the polyps) to increase.

Every so often, an increase of sea temperature causes bleaching of the reefs, because it leads to the death of the colourful algae that live with the polyps and leaves the bleached white coral behind. In time the polyps,deprived of food, also die. This happens when there is an El Niño event. This reversal of the equatorial ocean currents leads to warm water from Indonesia moving east and warming the sea around Fiji. Lower salinity is another cause of bleaching.

Efforts by a Fijian resort to conserve the reef: Many hotels and communities in Fiji are trying to conserve the coral reefs on which their livelihoods depend. Fiji's Coral Coast is fringed with the world's second-largest reef. The Hide-away Resort in the middle of the Coral Coast is one example. The resort uses a World Ecotourism, award-winning coral reef conservation programme of integrated coastal management.

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The resort fronts directly onto the fringing reef and makes visitors aware of its great importance. The area has been made into a protected zone. Guests can snorkel at high tide, but putting feet down onto the coral is not allowed. Guided walks are organised along a specially-provided reef path. At high tide, guests can view the marine life on the reef from the resort's glass bottomed boat. In the lagoon there is a coral nursery where coral is planted and protected. Notices in the garden remind visitors of the importance of the reef.



Coral reefs are the largest living structures on earth that are visible from space. They are among the most productive ecosystems on the planet - comprising roughly 0.2% of the world's oceans, but 11% of the world's fish harvest.

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 UNDER PRESSURE: Coral reefs around the world are under pressure from:

• coastal developments

• pollution

• sedimentation

• over-fishing

• walking on the reef

• natural disasters

• eutrophication

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High nutrient levels (especially nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds, such as fertilisers and detergents) lead to high seaweed populations.

The relatively slow-growing corals can't compete with the rapidly growing phytoplankton (seaweed) when there are raised nutrient levels in the water


Sponsor and plant a piece of coral on the reef.

Do not take anything from the sea.

Do not buy shells.

Do not walk on the reef other than on the walk path.

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In tropical and sub-tropical areas, mangrove swamps grow on coastal mudflats. Most species of mangrove have stilt roots that anchor the plant in the soft mud and slow down water movement - encouraging the deposition of more mud. This means that mangroves tend to raise and widen the level of the beach, extending the land out into the sea. More importantly, they are invaluable protection against coastal flooding and coastal erosion. The tallest mangroves grow to a height of 15m so they can also offer protection from the strong hurricane winds that often batter these tropical coastlines. The value of mangroves was emphasised during the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. In one village in Sri Lanka, where the mangroves had been cut down, 6000 people were killed. In a neighbouring village where the mangroves were intact, only two people died.

Mangroves vs. development on Grand Cayman

Originally, 36 per cent of Grand Cayman was occupied by mangroves. The largest area was in the centre of the island. Because it is located in a hurricane zone, this very low-lying island has always needed the protection that mangroves provide. It is also at risk from tsunamis caused by tectonic activity along the Caribbean plate boundary.

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However, between 1997 and 2009, there was a lot of development on the island, such as the building of new George Town hotels and condominiums. At least 10 per cent of the islands mangroves that existed in 1997 had been lost to various developments by 2009.

By 2010, 66 per cent of the mangroves that existed on the western peninsula had been removed

In 2010, a further 83 hectares of mangroves were removed to make way for a development at Dragon Bay, which stretches from Seven Mile Beach to the North Sound. Some of the properties in the Dragon Bay development will have private beaches. There will be a golf course, tennis courts and marina, among other facilities. The project has caused controversy. The developer maintained that the area of mangroves removed for it had been badly damaged by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. Others argued that the Mangroves had largely recovered from the hurricane. The developer is now planning to plant mangroves along some of the coast of the resort.

Tourists started to visit Grand Cayman in the 1960s, and tourism now provides 75 per cent of the GDP of the country.

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As a result of the 1977 Development Plan, many areas of mangrove swap were reclaimed for road building, golf courses, tourist accommodation, marinas and housing.

Local people have mixed opinions about this issue. Some describe the western side of the island as a concrete jungle. There is also considerable anger about the development because mangroves are valued as protection against high winds and storm surges. The effects of high winds are a recent memory, because 75 per cent of homes and other buildings on the island were severely damaged by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. It would have been much worse without the protection of the mangrove buffer zone.

Mangroves have other uses too:

• Their roots help to stabilise the coast against erosion.

• They are a source of fuelwood.

• Mangrove swamps absorb inorganic nutrients that drain into them in water from farmland and urban areas. This prevents them from being deposited in the sea and harming marine life.

• Mangrove leaves decay and add organic nutrients to the water, which provides food for the small fish that hatch and shelter in the mangrove area.

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• Mangrove swamps provide a nursery for fish and shellfish.

• They are important wildlife habitats, as well as temporary homes for migrating birds. They are important breeding and feeding grounds for birds. • They are also important for recreation - especially for fishing, bird watching, wildlife photography and boating.

However, people in favour of the development argue that more employment will be provided directly in the tourist industry. There will be an increase in people working in hotels, running boat trips to the famous Stingray City and diving expeditions down the Cayman Wall. Indirect employment will also result, as shopkeepers and restaurants will gain more revenue and the overall economy will be better.

On such a small island, caution is needed regarding further development. When an area becomes overdeveloped, it loses its attractiveness and tourists find somewhere else to go.

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During the winter of 2014, the UK Environment Agency completed the UK's largest coastal re-alignment scheme at Medmerry in West Sussex.

Why was the scheme needed? : The coastline faces south-west and receives the full force of winter storms driven by the prevailing southwesterly winds. The low-lying area inland from the coastline was protected by a shingle embankment but it was over-topped by storms in recent years, flooding caravan parks, farmland and other properties. Many salt marsh areas in the UK have recently disappeared because of coastal developments and other areas of salt marsh are under threat because of predicted rising sea levels. This scheme will create 180 hectares of new salt marsh, providing a habitat for migrating wading birds and other wildlife.

What has the scheme involved?: Managed re-alignment means building new defences inland from the current coastline and allowine intertidal area to form on what was once for old shingle embankment has been breached an kilometres of new defences have been construc to two kilometres further inland. Drainage ditches ponds have been built to facilitate the creation salt marsh habitat, covered by seawater at high time Two car parks, four viewpoints and 10km of footer cycle paths and bridleways have been constructed encourage tourism. Members of the local community were involved at all stages of the planning and decision making. The cost of the scheme was £28 million

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What has been the outcome? : Two holiday parks, a main road, a water treatment works and 350 homes have been protected from flooding. The level of protection is very high - enough to protect them from the 1000 year flood. The homes alone are worth £60 million at 2015 prices so the cost-benefit analysis shows that this was economically worthwhile. In addition, the 180 hectares of wetland will provide a habitat for wading birds such as the black-tailed godwit and mammals such as the water vole. Tourism should be boosted, benefiting the local economy, especially the two holiday parks. The Medmerry Park holiday village has been able to rebrand itself as an ecotourism destination, increasing its potential customer base.

Has the scheme worked?

At the time of writing it is too early to judge the long-term impacts of the scheme but even after six months the benefits are already apparent.

  • During the winter of 2013/2014, the south coast of the UK suffered some of the worst weather for 20 years with a sustained period of high tides, strong winds and stormy seas. The new defences have held firm and are working as planned.

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  • The owner of the Medmerry Park holiday village was sceptical when the proposals for the scheme were put forward. However, after the January 2014 storms he was delighted with the outcome. When interviewed he said, 'The scheme has really been tested. We're amazed at how well we've come out of it. Normally we would have had flooding in those weather conditions but we've had none at all.

  • Large numbers of birds are already using Medmerry, including wild ducks and a large flock of lapwings. Seals have been spotted at high tide.

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Norway is a rich HIC in northern Europe. Annual total energy consumption is very high at 6.2 tons of oil equivalent per person (the EU average is 3.8 tonnes). Per person electricity consumption is the highest in the world. Why is this the case?

• Norway is a rich country with a GDP per person of $55000 and one of the highest HDI (human development index) figures in the world (0.944). energy. Norwegians can afford to spend a lot of money on energy

• Norway is a cold country with long, dark winters. This means that a lot of energy has to be used for heating and lighting.

Norway has large reserves of oil and gas, most of which are exported. Instead of using these reserves domestically, it uses its vast HEP potential: 99 per cent of Norwegian electricity is generated from hydro-electric plants (Norway is wet and mountainous with many highlevel lakes). Overall, only 39 per cent of total energy consumption comes from fossil fuels and 61 per cent from renewables, mostly HEP.

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Most of Norway's electricity is supplied by HEP

  • With many high-altitude lakes and high rainfall, Norway can generate 99 per cent of its electricity and 50 per cent of total energy supplies from HEP.

  • This makes Norway the largest producer of HEP in Europe and the sixth largest in the world.

  • Because many of the lakes are natural, they have less environmental impact than artificially created reservoirs.

  • HEP is renewable by nature and is therefore already sustainable.

Norway is investing in renewable energy for the future

  • One of Norway's energy aims is to reduce its dependence on HEP by using a wider range of renewable resources.

  • This is needed to cope with any future rise in energy demand because almost all the potential HEP sites resources,have been exploited.  

  • US$3 billion were invested in developing renewable energy and energy-efficiency in 2006. One of the main aims is to triple wind power capacity.

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  • Research into solar power aims to increase the percentage of the sun's energy that can be converted into electricity from 17 per cent to 50 per cent via research into making solar panels more efficient. Norwegian winters are very dark but in the summer the days are very long: with 24 hours of sunlight (clouds permitting) around the summer solstice.

  • The government also provides funding for companies to research and develop biofuels to use for transport instead of petrol and diesel, for example producing biodiesel from waste from Norway's salmon industry.

  • As a wealthy nation, Norway is able to invest in research in order to develop a sustainable energy future.

Control of energy demand

  • The most effective way to control energy demand in Norway is by influencing the price through taxation. When the government increases the tax on energy, people have an incentive to use less.

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  • The Norwegian government also encourages energy conservation by ensuring all new buildings are energy-efficient, e.g. triple glazing. Advertising campaigns are used to encourage people to conserve energy, for example turning off electronic gadgets when they are not in use.

  • Norway has a public agency that advises on energy efficiency: Enova SF, run by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. House owners and business owners can contact the Enova call centre for advice about energy saving.

  • An industrial energy-efficiency network (Bransjenettverket) was established in 1989 by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy to encourage energy-efficiency in Norwegian industry. Companies can obtain grants to analyse the potential for energy savings and compare their performance against other companies. Approximately 900 companies have received information and financial support for lowering their energy consumption.

How successful and sustainable is Norway's energy strategy?

  • Norway has a sustainable electricity supply within the country. This means that the country doesn't have to worry about energy security in the short term.

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  • It can concentrate on developing a long-term sustainable energy supply.

  • Some aspects of the overall energy policy are already sustainable, e.g. using HEP stations to generate electricity, but others are not, e.g. relying on oil for transport. Encouraging the use of electric cars or biofuels could improve this.

  • Norway's sustainable energy (HEP) is a non-critical renewable resource which guarantees future electricity supplies.

  • Policies such as investing in energy-efficiency and renewables and putting high taxes on oil also promote sustainability.

  • Norway can manage energy demand by controlling the price through taxation and by encouraging households and industries to adopt energy conservation measures such as triple glazing.

  • The political stability and wealth of the country allow it to pursue a long-term sustainable energy future. Norway has a stable government and corruption is not a problem. TNCs and other countries are prepared to invest in Norway.

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Ulla-Førre is Norway's largest HEP complex with a al capacity of 2057 megawatts and a mean annual reduction of 4.5 terawatt hours. (One unit of domestic electricity consumption is the kilowatt hour and a terawatt hour is equivalent to one billion kilowatt hours.) The HEP complex consists of three generating stations which all utilise water from the Blasjø reservoir. The main power station, Kvilldal, with a capacity of 1240 MW, is Norway's largest power station. Kvilldal was opened in 1982 and is operated by Statkraft SF, the largest power company in Norway and 100 per cent owned by the state.

The Ulla-Førre complex is located in Rogaland in southwest Norway, 100 km north-east of the major port city of Stavanger.

Locational factors

Southern Norway has a high annual rainfall, over 2000 mm per year, and no dry season. There are, on average, between 15 and 20 rainy days every month so there is no shortage of water. Evaporation rates on the cold, high plateau where most of the water is stored are very low. Water is a non-critical renewable resource in this part of the world.

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This is also an area of high relief with mountains rising rapidly from the coastline. There are many high lakes on the fjell, a plateau at about 1000 m above sea level and the construction of the Storvass Dam allowed several of these lakes to be raised and combined into one large reservoir, Lake Blasjø. The deep, narrow valleys can also be dammed to form lower-lying reservoirs such as the Suldalsvatn reservoir in the valley of the Suldalslagen River.

The power complex is within 250 km of Oslo, 125 km of Bergen and 100 km of Stavanger. This means that electricity transmission to the three main cities of southern Norway is relatively easy and little power is lost over these short distances.


The operation of the Ulla-Førre HEP complex depends on a series of pipes, tunnels and pumps that move water between the two main reservoirs and the three generating stations. The main water supply is from the Blasjø Reservoir which collects rainwater falling on the high fjell plateau. Water is also collected from 39 rivers and brooks and stored in the Suldalsvatn Reservoir. When required, the Saurdal and Hylen power stations can pump water from the lower levels into the high level Lake Blasjø to ensure that supplies of water are always available. The Blasjø Reservoir can hold 3.1 billion tons of water.

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Because Blasjø is at 1000 m above sea level and the three generating stations are much closer to sea level, this provides a large 'head of water. al large amounts of electricity to be generated. Kviu power station has four large Francis turbines operate continuously if required.

Combining the three power stations into a laro complex gives considerable flexibility of oper Because Saurdal is a pumped-storage HEP Station the complex can meet peaks of demand when water is drained from Blasjø Reservoir faster than it replenishment rate but it can then pump water to Lake Blasjø using off-peak electricity genera demand for power is low. This allows the complex cope with short-term fluctuations in demand.

How successful is the Ulla-Førre HEP complex?

Overall, the Ulla-Førre complex and the massive ku HEP station have proved to be very successful:

• Large amounts of electricity can be supplied to the cities of southern Norway.

• The electricity is produced without using fossil fuels so the generating complex does not contribute to global warming.

• Because the Blasjø Reservoir was created on the uninhabited plateau at 1000 m above sea level, it did not flood any villages or towns. No one had to be relocated.

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• In southern Norway water is a non-critical renewable resource because of the high rainfall and because of the ability of the complex to reuse water if required This makes the system highly sustainable and able to cope with long-term variations in demand.

• It was expensive to build but operating costs are very low, making the electricity cheap.

• Linking three power stations into one large complex allowed the flexibility to respond to variations in demand.

• Salmon migrations have been allowed to continue, which is good for the natural environment and for the local tourist industry.

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The London Docklands is the name of an area of east London in the UK. The docks were once part of the Port of London - the world’s largest port in its day. The surrounding areas were cheap residential areas, housing the dockers and the people who worked in the related port industries. By the 1960s, containerisation and the increasing size of ships had led to the decline of the london docks and the associated port industries - trade moved downriver to the deepwater harbours such as Tilbury. By 1980, all of London's docks were closed, leaving 8 square miles of derelict land in east London.

Why was regeneration needed?: When the docks closed, 12 000 jobs were lost and the dockers did not have the transferable skills to allow them to find other jobs in the area. Unemployment led poverty and serious social problems. There were large areas of derelict buildings that required complete redevelopment. The infrastructure of the area was poor with inadequate transport links to the rest of London.

Who would invest?: The land was owned by many different groups, from local councils to private individuals and companies. Piecemeal investment in a multitude of small areas did not seem attractive. The lack of new housing meant builders of private housing had no idea what the return on new houses would be and did not want to take the risk of investing large sums building them.

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The poor infrastructure meant private companies were deterred from investing - infrastructure projects are usually the responsibility of national or local government. Who was going to save the Docklands?

How did the re-generation begin?: To solve the problem, in 1981 the UK government started the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) to redevelop the area. The LDDC could acquire land for development by agreement or by compulsory purchase, They had the funds and the powers to create a new infrastructure and to foster the development of public services such as housing, schools and hospitals. In 1982 the LDDC also designed an enterprise zone in which businesses were exempt from property taxes and had other incentives such as simplified planning regulations and capital grants. This made private investment in the area an attractive proposition.  In fact most of the redevelopment was organised and funded by private companies who realised that rich profits could be made.

Was it a success?: Unemployment was reduced by a combination of training projects, improvements in transport to-andfrom the rest of London and the creation of new jobs. Regenerating the Docklands cost £3.9 billion of to public money, mostly spent on improving the transport infrastructure.

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Private sector investment was £8.7 billion by 1998 and still continues to this day. The Canary Wharf area has become a vibrant financial and banking area. The LDDC has generated a range of economic, environmental and social improvements, including 80 000 new jobs and 24000 new housing units. The Docklands Light Railway, the London City airport and 144 km of new roads have improved the transport infrastructure. 25 million square feet of industrial/commercial floor space has been built. 1884 acres of derelict land have been reclaimed. Five new health centres and 25 new schools or colleges have been created. The Canary Wharf area is seen as a symbol of Britain's wealth and prestige and most commentators regard the project as a success.

However, there have been some criticisms. Many of the new housing units were very expensive. The original dockland inhabitants could not afford them and felt they were being pushed aside. Many of the older dockers were not able to benefit from retraining (although their children have) and they remained unemployed and poor.

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The Pearl River delta is located where the Pearl River (zhu Jiang) meets the sea in Guangdong Province, South-east China. The river opens out into a vast Inlet of the sea forming a superb natural harbour - excellent for trade and industry because imports and exports can move freely in and out of the area. Shenzen is a leading container port. It is not far from Hong Kong.

Economic growth

The growth of manufacturing industry drove rapid economic development in south-east China:

  • Industry has developed here because of the cheap al land beside the river and the excellent port facilties at Shenzen. Workers have moved in from surrounding countryside to provide a cheap and plentiful supply of labour.

  • There are many big TNCs such as IBM, Wal-Mart and Samsung. The TNCs were attracted by the fact that this area was one of the first to be opened up to direct foreign investment after 1979.

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  • The industries increase economic development by increasing the wealth of the area. In 1980 the area was mostly rice fields with some industry and it had a GDP of $8 billion. By 2001 many new factories had been set up and the GDP was $100 billion.

  • Industry has created many jobs in the area; Honda alone employs 6000 people in Guangzhou and Zhongshan.

Environmental impacts

  • There is so much air pollution from the factory chimneys and the power stations that the area is often covered in smog.

  • There are many power stations that burn coal, producing sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These gases cause acid rain.

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  • The power stations also produce carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming.

  • Water pollution from factory wastes and from untreated sewage means that the area has very poor water quality. Pearl River water in Guangzhou is only suitable for farm irrigation and not for domestic use (drinking and washing).

  • Wildlife habitats are also being destroyed and polluted. The wetlands in the delta have been reclaimed to build factories and houses, destroying a range of habitats. The Pearl River drains into the South China Sea and the pollution goes with it. Marine species such as the Chinese white dolphin are endangered as a result. Locally-caught fish have high levels of toxic heavy metals.

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Management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts

  • The PRD Air Quality Management Plan aims to reduce the air pollution. They are trying to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from power stations by 40 per cent to reduce smog and acid rain. The main way they are doing this is by switching from coal to natural gas - a much cleaner fuel.

  • The Chinese government has spent US$ 7 billion on trying to combat water pollution in the Pearl River. Thirty new sewage works and water treatment facilities will clean up the sewage and the industrial wastes before they get into the river.

  • These management strategies are sustainable because they aim to solve the environmental problems without stopping industry from expanding - therefore maintaining economic growth. This means that people will still be able to live and in the PRD with a good quality of life and a rising standard of living. Jobs and a clean environment will both be available in the future.

However, the success of these strategies will only be seen in the future. The PRD is still a heavily-polluted area, as are many other industrial and urban areas in China. The Chinese government do appear to be determined to deal with these issues of environmental degradation

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Côte d'Ivoire is the world's leading producer and exporter of cocoa beans, overtaking Ghana in 1978 and producing around 40 per cent of the world production. Large chocolate producers such as Cadbury, Hershey's, and Nestlé buy cocoa from Côte d'Ivoire. Cocoa production is unusual in that it is mostly produced on small family farms in areas of mixed woodland, therefore it competes for land with other agricultural production and logging. Farmers face problems of:

  • replacing ageing and diseased cocoa trees, the main disease being black pod

  • poor, leached soils

  • outdated farming methods

  • fluctuating world prices.

Farmers benefit through Fairtrade membership by the following mechanisms, usually delivered through local co-operatives.

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Guaranteed prices: From 2010 to 2015, the world price of cocoa beans rose in response to high demand for cocoa and a shortage of supply. However, farmers have not benefitted enough from this and remain in poverty as their incomes fail to keep up with increased production costs and household expenses. Guaranteed Fairtrade prices help to balance price fluctuations. However, on average Fairtrade cocoa farmers in Côte d'Ivoire are only able to sell around 13 per cent of their cocoa on Fairtrade terms. This means they only get the benefits of Fairtrade for this percentage, even though 100 per cent of their cocoa is grown and certified to Fairtrade Standards.

Fairtrade Premium:This is an additional sum of money which goes into a communal fund for workers and farmers and used to improve their social, economic and environmental conditions. Producers determine whether they would like to spend the premium on education,  healthcare, improving their business or building vital infrastructure such as schools, roads and bridges for their community. For example, in the village of Tiemokokro, the school had previously survived with a single volunteer teacher; using the communal fund, the school was rebuilt. The school now has a principal, two teachers and three volunteers teaching 200 students.

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Subsidised goods: Access to subsidised pesticides, machetes and rubber boots has greatly improved productivity and working conditions.

Access to training: In the village of Tiemokokro, 90 per cent of the cooperative's members have had access to training on good agricultural practices.

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