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Experimental studies: lab experiments have found Aggressive behaviour cannot be studied
short-term increases in the levels of physiological directly, as this is not permitted on ethical
arousals, hostile feelings and aggressive behaviour grounds.
following violent game play compare to non-violent Cannot measure `real life' aggression and
therefore can only measure the short term
(Anderson and Dill)- participants blasted their effects.
opponents with white noise for longer and rated
themselves higher on the state hostility scale after
playing a `first person' shooter game to those who
played a slow puzzle game.
Longitudinal studies: Anderson et al surveyed 430
children aged between seven and nine at two points
during the school year. Children who had high Longitudinal studies are able to observe
exposure to violent video games became more real-life patterns of behaviour and
verbally and physically aggressive and less document both short term and long term
pro-social (as rated by themselves, their peers and effects
their teachers) Is the aggression only affected by violent
video game alone? Extraneous variables
are hard to control, participants may have
been exposed to other forms of media
Meta analyses allow researchers to compare results violence
across many different studies to establish an
average `effect size'
Several meta analyses have found a consistent link A `bi-directional model' suggests that
between violent games and aggressive behaviour. although playing violent games may cause
The association holds for both children and adults. an increase in aggressive behaviour, it is
They also found a larger effect size with more recent just as likely that people who already
studies (because violent video games have become possess personality traits that orientate
more violent). them towards aggressive behaviour, select
video games for recreational purposes.
Facebook friends and stress- Charles used focus
group and interview techniques to investigate the
facebook habits of 200 undergraduate students in
Scotland. 12% experienced anxiety linked to their
use of social networking site. The majority who
reported anxiety had significantly more friends than Karpinski suggests that there is a
other facebook users. They reported stress from
relationship between facebook and lower
deleting unwanted contacts, the constant pressure
to be humorous and entertaining and worrying grades; she also suggests that facebook
about the proper type of etiquette toward different users could be prone to distraction.
friends. Greenfield argued that facebook `infantilise'
Of the student surveyed 32% stated that rejecting the brain by shortening the attention span
facebook requests made them feel guilty and and providing constant instant gratification,
uncomfortable and 10% reported that they disliked although there are no evidence to support
receiving friend requests. this claim
(D'amo et al) Case study of 18 yr old
asthmatic man whose condition was stable
until he split up with his girlfriend and she