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Energy
Module 4: Respiration
Introduction
Respiration is the process where ATP is produced. Energy in the form of ATP is used in many
metabolic reactions in the body. Metabolic processes that need energy includes:
Active transport - moving ions and molecules across a membrane against concentration
gradient. A lot of energy is used for this.
Secretion - a molecules made in cells released by exocytosis.
Endocytosis - bulk movement of large molecules into cells.
Replication of DNA
Photoautotrophs create their own energy through photosynthesis.…read more

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An organic non protein molecule which helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidation
reactions. When NAD has accepted two hydrogen atoms with their electrons, it is reduced.
Coenzyme A (CoA)
Its function is to carry out ethanoate groups.
Glycolysis
1. Glucose molecule is activated before it can react. This is done by adding one ATP molecule
which is hydrolysed and the phosphate group released attaches to the glucose making
hexose phosphate
2. This process is repeated again to produce hexose bis-phosphate.
3.…read more

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Function of the mitochondria…read more

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How does the structure enable them to carry out their functions?
Matrix
Where the link reaction and kerb cycle take place
The enzyme that catalyse the stages of these reactions
Molecules of coenzyme NAD
Oxaloacetate
The inner membrane
Folded crista has a large surface area
Has embedded in it many electrons carriers and ATP synthase enzymes
The link reaction and kerb cycle
The link reaction uses pyruvate dehydrogenase to remove hydrogen atoms from pyruvate, and also
pyruvate decarboxylase which removes carboxyl group.…read more

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The 5-carbon compound is decarboxylated and dehydrogenated to form a 4-carbon
compound and another molecule of NADH.
4. The 4-carbon compound is changed into another 4-carbon compound. During this reaction
one molecule of ADP is phosphorylated to produce a molecule of ATP. This is substrate level
phosphorylation.
5. The second 4-carbon compound is changed into another 4-carbon compound. A pair of
hydrogen atoms are removed and accepted by the coenzyme FAD, which reduces.
6. The third 4-carbon compound is further dehydrogenated and regenerates oxaloacetate.…read more

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As protons flow through the ATP synthase, they drive rotation of part of the enzyme and
joined ADP and Pi to form ATP
The electrons are passed from the last electron carrier in the chain to molecular oxygen's,
which is the final electron acceptor
Hydrogen ions also join so that oxygen is reduced to water.…read more

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Alcoholic fermentation
Under anaerobic conditions in yeast cells:
Each carbon dioxide molecule loses a CO2 molecule; it is decarboxylated and becomes
ethanol
This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase, which has a coenzyme
bound to it.
The reoxidised NAD can now accept more hydrogen atoms from glucose, during glycolysis.…read more

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