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and Energy

Module 4: Respiration

Respiration is the process where ATP is produced. Energy in the form of ATP is used in many
metabolic reactions in the body. Metabolic processes that need energy includes:

Active transport - moving ions and molecules across a membrane against concentration
gradient. A lot…

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An organic non protein molecule which helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidation
reactions. When NAD has accepted two hydrogen atoms with their electrons, it is reduced.

Coenzyme A (CoA)
Its function is to carry out ethanoate groups.


1. Glucose molecule is activated before it can react. This is…

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Function of the mitochondria

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How does the structure enable them to carry out their functions?

Where the link reaction and kerb cycle take place

The enzyme that catalyse the stages of these reactions
Molecules of coenzyme NAD

The inner membrane
Folded crista has a large surface area
Has embedded in it many…

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3. The 5-carbon compound is decarboxylated and dehydrogenated to form a 4-carbon
compound and another molecule of NADH.
4. The 4-carbon compound is changed into another 4-carbon compound. During this reaction
one molecule of ADP is phosphorylated to produce a molecule of ATP. This is substrate level
5. The…

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As protons flow through the ATP synthase, they drive rotation of part of the enzyme and
joined ADP and Pi to form ATP
The electrons are passed from the last electron carrier in the chain to molecular oxygen's,
which is the final electron acceptor
Hydrogen ions also join so that…

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Alcoholic fermentation

Under anaerobic conditions in yeast cells:

Each carbon dioxide molecule loses a CO2 molecule; it is decarboxylated and becomes
This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase, which has a coenzyme
bound to it.
The reoxidised NAD can now accept more hydrogen atoms from glucose, during…


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