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Module 4.4

ATP is the immediate energy source. In respiration takes place in the cytoplasm, all the other steps in
the mitochondria. ATP synthesis is associated with electron transfer.

Know ATP is made from ADP + Pi (inorganic phosphate) when there is energy available.
List the uses of ATP in…

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Aerobic respiration:


Cytoplasm of all living
2 ATP molecules are
added to glucose to form glucose
1.6. bisphosphate or
phosphrylated glucose.
This is unstable and
therefore splits into 2 x 3-carbon
compound triose phosphate (TP)
Hydrogen is removed
from each TP molecule and added
to NAD to form…

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Pyruvate + NAD + CoA acetyl CoA + reduced NAD + CO2

The krebs cycle:

Oxidation/reduction reactions
Matrix of mitochondria
The 2 carbon acetyl A from the link reaction combines with a 4-carbon compound to produce
a 6-carbon compound.
This 6-carbon molecule loses carbon dioxide and hydrogens to give a…

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NADP ­ important in photosynthesis.
NAD works with dehydrogenase enzymes that catalyse the removal of hydrogen ions from
substrates and transfer them to other molecules such as the hydrogen carriers involved in
oxidative phosphorylation.

Statement Glycolysis Krebs cycle Light dependent
reactions of
ATP is produced 1 2 3

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Anaerobic respiration:

In plants the pyruvate produced in glycolysis is converted to ethanol in anaerobic respiration.
In animals pyruvate is converted into lactate.


Pyruvate + reduced NAD ethanol + NAD


Pyruvate + reduced NAD lactate + NAD

Lactate can be oxidised back into pyruvate or converted to glycogen…


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