f214 respiration

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  • Created on: 30-12-13 11:26
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Module 3: Respiration
(a) Outline why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire, with reference to
active transport and metabolic reactions
Organisms need to respire in order to make ATP, a molecule that carries energy. Metabolic
processes need ATP in order to occur. The materials necessary to make ATP is made by respiration
and is obtained by inhaling the gas (O2) and by consumption (glucose)
(b) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of ATP
ATP is composed of:
3 phosphate groups
A ribose sugar
And an adenine group
(c) State that ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes
ATP provides an immediate source of energy for biological processes. The braking of bonds
between phosphate groups to make ADP from ATP provides a large amount of energy.
(d) Explain the importance of coenzymes in respiration, with reference to NAD and
coenzyme A
Coenzymes are used in respiration as a way of transporting molecules. NAD transfers H+ ions from
the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial membranes. Without this act of transportation there won't be a
build-up of H+ ions in the inter-membrane space which is necessary for ATP synthesis. Coenzyme A
transport acetate in the form of acetyl CoA made during link reaction to the site where the Krebs
cycle occurs.
(e) State that glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. This process is the breaking down of glucose into pyruvate.
(f) outline the process of glycolysis
(g) State that, during aerobic respiration in animals, pyruvate is actively transported into
During respiration pyruvate is actively transported into the mitochondria. This is due to the glycolysis
occurring in the cytoplasm and the next stage of respiration happening in the mitochondria

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Explain, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, how the structure of
mitochondria enables them to carry out their functions
The mitochondrion has many cristae that make the surface area
to volume ration bigger.
The matrix has many ribosomes necessary to synthesise proteins
such as enzymes needed for respiration
The outer membrane keeps the substrates in one area.…read more

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H gradient and electrochemical gradient. The H+ ions cannot move via the membrane
therefore has to use the ATP synthase.
(p) State that oxygen is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
Oxygen is the last electron acceptor in respiration. Oxygen binds with H+ ions and electrons to make
H2O.…read more

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