Module 2 - Information and Systems


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01/10/2009The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Module 2
Information and Systems
What do you mean by an Organisation?
An organisation is an entity, which consist of;
A group of people;
Working together with a common purpose;
To satisfy a series of objectives;
To carry out all the activities that go towards those objectives;
Examples of organisation: schools, colleges, universities, Hospitals etc.
Classifying Organisations (by TYPE)
Commercial Industrial
Commercial organisations are mainly driven by their need to make a profit on their
activities. Here goods are purchased and then sold on to make a profit or they supply
services to customers.
Examples of commercial organisations retailers, wholesalers, banks, insurance.
The main function of an industrial organisation is to manufacture products or raw
materials or be involved in construction. They produce a product or material or structure
which can be sold to make a profit.
Examples of Industrial organisations; car manufactures, house builders, household appliance
The main aim of Public service organisation is to obtain maximum benefit for the public
they serve. They are usually under pressure to do this in as efficient a way as is possible.
Producing profit is not an aim of these organisations.

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Example of Public-services organisations; schools and college, hospitals, police service,
armed forces, inland revenue, city councils etc.
Classifying Organisations (by SCALE)
Scale of organisations (denoting number of employee)
Small ( 1- 50)
Medium (50 ­ 500)
Large (500 or more)
Small scale organisations
These employ 1 to 50 employee;
They have generally informal structures;
These are usually confined to a single site;
They make use of Local Area Network (LANs).…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Clear authority exists in the organisations;
All decisions are made by senior managers;
Communication trends to flow mainly from senior managers downward;
Generally efficiently run organisations
Staffs are often de-motivated as they do not feel involved in the organisations.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Level Personal Roles and Responsibilities
Strategic senior management leading, directing, high-
(MD, CEO, director, level decisions
senior, executives,
principal, vice principal)
Tactical Personal Middle Management
Information needs in organisations:
Organisations perform many different activities (viz ordering goods and services, selling
goods or services, accounting for money, paying staff, managing resources) and each of
these activities will have information needs.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Informing customers about new products being launched
Information needs in organisations:
Organisations generally have close trading association with the following bodies:
Suppliers, customers, and officials and legal bodies.
Suppliers: Are organisations which supply goods or services for another organisation.
Suppliers and customers help each other to maximise profits from the trading.
Examples: Utility companies gas, electric, water, telephone), Maintenance (decorators,
heating engineers, window cleaners) and Equipment suppliers.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Org need to ensure that confidential data/info passed between them is kept safe and
secure, for which there must exist an ICT policy. Measures like authentication by valid
usernames and passwords, ensuring restricted access levels must also be taken at all times.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
The primary objective of supply chain management (scm) is to fulfil customer demands with
supplier, through the most efficient use of resources, including distribution capacity,
inventory and labour. The SCM software is used by businesses to streamline all the activities
in its supply chain.
Example: the NHS supply chain provides customer-focus healthcare products and services to
the UK's national health services (NHS), enabling trusts, hospitals and other healthcare organ
to focus on patient care.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
Staff details (keep the personnel details of organisation's employees, record of
absences, holidays, sickness and other disciplinary actions);
Training records (records of training courses received by the employees of an
Payroll records consisting of salary details of the employees.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
4. Workflow and Document Management Systems (DMS) ­ DMS can be used to
use to control the flow, storage and retrieval of documents.
Keeps track of electronically ­ stored/digitised documents;
Used when data arrives different forms;
Generally used by an insurance companies for settling car insurance claims.
Example; Letters, fax, emails; Online or on paper; Drawings/maps ­ scanned;
Photographs (Films/Digital)
5. Collaborative Working ­ The technical of Video ­ Conferencing. File sharing, E-mail,
VLE etc.…read more

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The Use of ICT in the Digital WorldDinu Vincent
*MIS is used by the managers to control and plan the organisation. It helps management to
monitor and control organisational performance, plan for the future and take effective
decisions.…read more


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