Module 2: Revision Booklet

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Contents
Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology ........................................................................................................................... 3
Basic components of living systems .......................................................................................................... 3
Microscopy ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells ............................................................................................................ 7
Biological molecules ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Lipids................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Protein synthesis......................................................................................................................................... 11
Inorganic Ions............................................................................................................................................... 13
Nucleic Acids ................................................................................................................................................. 14
Structure of DNA ......................................................................................................................................... 15
Enzymes .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Plasma membranes .................................................................................................................................... 19
Cell division, cell diversity and cellular organisation .................................................................. 27
Module 3 ­ Exchange and transport ...................................................................................................................... 33
Exchange surfaces and breathing ............................................................................................................ 33
Specialised exchange surfaces ............................................................................................................... 33
The mammalian gaseous exchange system ..................................................................................... 33
Measuring the process .............................................................................................................................. 33
Ventilation and gas exchange in other organisms......................................................................... 33
Transport in animals..................................................................................................................................... 34
Transport systems in multicellular animals .................................................................................... 34
Blood vessels................................................................................................................................................. 34
Blood, tissue fluid, and lymph................................................................................................................ 34
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood ................................................................ 34
The heart ........................................................................................................................................................ 34
Transport in plants ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Transport systems in dicotyledonous plants .................................................................................. 35
Water transport in multicellular plants ............................................................................................ 35
Transpiration ................................................................................................................................................ 35
Translocation ................................................................................................................................................ 35
Plant adaptations to water availability .............................................................................................. 35
Module 4 ­ Biodiversity, evolution and disease ............................................................................................... 36
Classification and evolution ....................................................................................................................... 36
Classification ................................................................................................................................................. 36
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The five kingdoms ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Phylogeny ....................................................................................................................................................... 36
Evidence for evolution .............................................................................................................................. 36
Types of variation ....................................................................................................................................... 36
Representing variation graphically ..................................................................................................... 37
Adaptations ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Changing population characteristics .................................................................................................. 37
Biodiversity....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Biodiversity ................................................................................................................................................... 38
Types of sampling techniques ............................................................................................................... 38
Calculating biodiversity............................................................................................................................ 38
Calculating genetic biodiversity............................................................................................................ 38
Factors affecting biodiversity ................................................................................................................ 38
Reasons for maintaining biodiversity ................................................................................................ 38
Methods of maintaining biodiversity.................................................................................................. 38
Communicable diseases............................................................................................................................... 40
Animal and plant pathogens................................................................................................................... 40
Animal and plant diseases ....................................................................................................................... 40
The transmission of communicable diseases .....................................................................................…read more

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology
Basic components of living systems
Microscopy
Outline the importance of microscopes in the study of living organisms.
The cell is a unit of life, many organisms are unicellular, and most of these are too small to see without
microscopes. The organelles in these cells are even smaller and we need to see them to determine
their function. Before the 19th century microscopes were of too poor a resolution to identify cells and
cell components.…read more

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Explain why you would see more detail with an electron microscope than light microscope.
Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light and electrons have a shorter wavelength than light
which produces images with a higher resolution.
Define the term artefact with reference to microscopy.
An artefact is a visible image or distorted cell structure present in an electron micrograph due to the
sample preparation process.
Explain why artefacts are more likely to be produced when preparing samples for electron
microscopy than light microscopy.…read more

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Describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an electron
microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope,
rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria,
lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface)
Nucleus: Contains chromatin, nucleolus, and DNA which provides the genetic code. The DNA exists as
multiple chromosomes which are supercoiled, and each one wraps around a number of proteins called
histones, forming a chromatin. Chromatin coils and condenses to form chromosomes.…read more

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What is a lysosome and why is the membrane that surrounds it so important?
Lysosomes are specialised vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down waste material.
This membrane that forms lysosomes has an important role in compartmentalising theses enzymes
away from cell structures that could be damaged by the activity of the enzyme.
Explain why cells need to be compartmentalised and give three examples of compartmentalisation
within an animal cell.…read more

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Outline the interrelationship between the organelles involved in the production and secretion of
proteins.…read more

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Biological molecules
Water is essential to life on Earth: over 80% of the mass of living organisms is water and almost all the
chemical reactions take place in aqueous solution. The majority of other chemicals belong to four
organic macromolecule groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids. Together these make
up 93% of the dry mass of living organisms with the remaining mass being mainly vitamins and
inorganic ions.…read more

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State the structural difference between alpha- and beta-glucose.
In alpha glucose the hydroxyl group on carbon 1 is below the ring and hydrogen on top. In beta glucose
hydroxyl group on carbon 1 it is above the ring and hydrogen below.…read more

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Lipids
Compare, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of a triglyceride and a phospholipid.
A triglyceride is formed by one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. A phospholipid is formed by
one glycerol molecule, two fatty acids and a phosphate group; this means they have a hydrophilic tail
and a hydrophobic head. Phospholipids also have only two ester bonds as opposed to three.
Describe saturated and unsaturated fats.
Oils are usually unsaturated and contain double bonds, as do fatty acids.…read more

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shelford_dan

Great resource, nice work!

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