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Contents
Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology ........................................................................................................................... 3
Basic components of living systems .......................................................................................................... 3
Microscopy ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells ............................................................................................................ 7
Biological molecules ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Lipids................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Protein synthesis......................................................................................................................................... 11
Inorganic Ions............................................................................................................................................... 13
Nucleic Acids ................................................................................................................................................. 14
Structure of DNA ......................................................................................................................................... 15
Enzymes .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Plasma…

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The five kingdoms ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Phylogeny ....................................................................................................................................................... 36
Evidence for evolution .............................................................................................................................. 36
Types of variation ....................................................................................................................................... 36
Representing variation graphically ..................................................................................................... 37
Adaptations ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Changing population characteristics .................................................................................................. 37
Biodiversity....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Biodiversity ................................................................................................................................................... 38
Types of sampling techniques ............................................................................................................... 38
Calculating biodiversity............................................................................................................................ 38
Calculating genetic biodiversity............................................................................................................ 38
Factors…

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology
Basic components of living systems
Microscopy
Outline the importance of microscopes in the study of living organisms.
The cell is a unit of life, many organisms are unicellular, and most of these are too small to see without
microscopes. The organelles in these cells…

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Explain why you would see more detail with an electron microscope than light microscope.
Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light and electrons have a shorter wavelength than light
which produces images with a higher resolution.
Define the term artefact with reference to microscopy.
An artefact is a visible image…

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Describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an electron
microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope,
rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria,
lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface)

Nucleus: Contains chromatin, nucleolus, and DNA which provides…

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What is a lysosome and why is the membrane that surrounds it so important?
Lysosomes are specialised vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down waste material.
This membrane that forms lysosomes has an important role in compartmentalising theses enzymes
away from cell structures that could be damaged by the…

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells




Outline the interrelationship between the organelles involved in the production and secretion of
proteins.

The Nucleus contains the DNA for a protein
RNA is sent to the rER for protein synthesis
Proteins are synthesized on the ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum
Pass into the cisternae…

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Biological molecules
Water is essential to life on Earth: over 80% of the mass of living organisms is water and almost all the
chemical reactions take place in aqueous solution. The majority of other chemicals belong to four
organic macromolecule groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids. Together these make…

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State the structural difference between alpha- and beta-glucose.
In alpha glucose the hydroxyl group on carbon 1 is below the ring and hydrogen on top. In beta glucose
hydroxyl group on carbon 1 it is above the ring and hydrogen below.

Describe the formation and breakage of glycosidic bonds in…

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Lipids
Compare, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of a triglyceride and a phospholipid.
A triglyceride is formed by one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. A phospholipid is formed by
one glycerol molecule, two fatty acids and a phosphate group; this means they have a hydrophilic tail
and…

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shelford_dan

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Great resource, nice work!

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