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Page 1

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Contents Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology
........................................................................................................................... 3
Basic components of living systems
.......................................................................................................... 3
Microscopy
.......................................................................................................................................................
3
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
............................................................................................................ 7
Biological molecules
..................................................................................................................................... 8
Lipids
.........................................................................................................................................................
....... 10
Protein synthesis
......................................................................................................................................... 11
Inorganic Ions
............................................................................................................................................... 13
Nucleic Acids
................................................................................................................................................. 14
Structure of DNA
......................................................................................................................................... 15…

Page 2

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.............................................................................................................................. 33
Ventilation and gas exchange in other organisms
......................................................................... 33 Transport in animals
..................................................................................................................................... 34
Transport systems in multicellular animals ....................................................................................
34
Blood
vessels.............................................................................................................................................
.... 34
Blood, tissue fluid, and lymph
................................................................................................................ 34
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood ................................................................ 34
The heart
........................................................................................................................................................
34 Transport…

Page 3

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The five kingdoms
...................................................................................................................................... 36
Phylogeny
.......................................................................................................................................................
36
Evidence for evolution
.............................................................................................................................. 36
Types of variation
....................................................................................................................................... 36
Representing variation graphically
..................................................................................................... 37
Adaptations
................................................................................................................................................... 37
Changing population characteristics
.................................................................................................. 37 Biodiversity
.......................................................................................................................................................
38
Biodiversity
................................................................................................................................................... 38
Types of sampling techniques
............................................................................................................... 38
Calculating
biodiversity............................................................................................................................ 38
Calculating genetic biodiversity
............................................................................................................…

Page 4

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Plant defences against pathogens
........................................................................................................ 40
Non-specific animal defences against pathogens ..........................................................................
40
The specific immune system
.................................................................................................................. 40 Checklist
.........................................................................................................................................................
................... 42
Subject Exam Date Biology Thursday 19th May (PM) Chemistry Friday 27th May (AM) Biology
Tuesday 7th June (PM)
2 | Page

Page 5

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Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology Basic components of living systems Microscopy Outline the
importance of microscopes in the study of living organisms. The cell is a unit of life, many
organisms are unicellular, and most of these are too small to see without microscopes. The
organelles in these cells…

Page 6

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produced with just one image.
3 | Page

Page 7

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Explain why you would see more detail with an electron microscope than light microscope.
Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light and electrons have a shorter wavelength
than light which produces images with a higher resolution.
Define the term artefact with reference to microscopy.
An artefact is a visible image…

Page 8

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Describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an
electron microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus,
nucleolus, nuclear envelope, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi
apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface)
Nucleus: Contains chromatin, nucleolus, and DNA which provides…

Page 9

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Vesicles: Single membranes with fluid inside used to transport substances around the cell.
Lysosomes are examples of these, they play a large part in apoptosis.
5 | Page

Page 10

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What is a lysosome and why is the membrane that surrounds it so important?
Lysosomes are specialised vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down waste
material. This membrane that forms lysosomes has an important role in compartmentalising
theses enzymes away from cell structures that could be damaged by the…

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shelford_dan

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Great resource, nice work!

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Contents Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology
........................................................................................................................... 3
Basic components of living systems
.......................................................................................................... 3
Microscopy
.......................................................................................................................................................
3
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
............................................................................................................ 7
Biological molecules
..................................................................................................................................... 8
Lipids
.........................................................................................................................................................
....... 10
Protein synthesis
......................................................................................................................................... 11
Inorganic Ions
............................................................................................................................................... 13
Nucleic Acids
................................................................................................................................................. 14
Structure of DNA
......................................................................................................................................... 15…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
.............................................................................................................................. 33
Ventilation and gas exchange in other organisms
......................................................................... 33 Transport in animals
..................................................................................................................................... 34
Transport systems in multicellular animals ....................................................................................
34
Blood
vessels.............................................................................................................................................
.... 34
Blood, tissue fluid, and lymph
................................................................................................................ 34
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood ................................................................ 34
The heart
........................................................................................................................................................
34 Transport…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
The five kingdoms
...................................................................................................................................... 36
Phylogeny
.......................................................................................................................................................
36
Evidence for evolution
.............................................................................................................................. 36
Types of variation
....................................................................................................................................... 36
Representing variation graphically
..................................................................................................... 37
Adaptations
................................................................................................................................................... 37
Changing population characteristics
.................................................................................................. 37 Biodiversity
.......................................................................................................................................................
38
Biodiversity
................................................................................................................................................... 38
Types of sampling techniques
............................................................................................................... 38
Calculating
biodiversity............................................................................................................................ 38
Calculating genetic biodiversity
............................................................................................................…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Plant defences against pathogens
........................................................................................................ 40
Non-specific animal defences against pathogens ..........................................................................
40
The specific immune system
.................................................................................................................. 40 Checklist
.........................................................................................................................................................
................... 42
Subject Exam Date Biology Thursday 19th May (PM) Chemistry Friday 27th May (AM) Biology
Tuesday 7th June (PM)
2 | Page

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Module 2 ­ Foundations in biology Basic components of living systems Microscopy Outline the
importance of microscopes in the study of living organisms. The cell is a unit of life, many
organisms are unicellular, and most of these are too small to see without microscopes. The
organelles in these cells…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
produced with just one image.
3 | Page

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Explain why you would see more detail with an electron microscope than light microscope.
Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light and electrons have a shorter wavelength
than light which produces images with a higher resolution.
Define the term artefact with reference to microscopy.
An artefact is a visible image…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an
electron microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus,
nucleolus, nuclear envelope, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi
apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface)
Nucleus: Contains chromatin, nucleolus, and DNA which provides…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Vesicles: Single membranes with fluid inside used to transport substances around the cell.
Lysosomes are examples of these, they play a large part in apoptosis.
5 | Page

Page 10

Preview of page 10
What is a lysosome and why is the membrane that surrounds it so important?
Lysosomes are specialised vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down waste
material. This membrane that forms lysosomes has an important role in compartmentalising
theses enzymes away from cell structures that could be damaged by the…

Comments

shelford_dan

Report

Great resource, nice work!