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AQA Biology Unit 1
Revision Booklet




By Jack Richardson

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1.0 - Disease
1.1 Pathogens:

Pathogens are disease causing microorganisms
Disease is the symptoms displayed on a person following an infection, a malfunction of the body or mind
Infectious Disease: Caused by bacterium, virus, fungum transferred from one person to another
Non Infectious Disease: A disease that is not caused…

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Pathogens cause disease by:
Damaging host tissue (inhibit the synthesis of DNA,RNA and proteins ­ may break down the membrane of the
host cell)
Produce toxins (have various effects such as increased water loss from cholera bacteria)

1.2 Data and Disease:

Epidemiology is the study of the incidence and pattern…

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2.0 - Enzymes and the Digestive System
2.1 Enzymes and digestion:

The digestive system is made up of one long tube which is an interface to the environment as food passes into the
body through it; which contains glands that produce enzymes.

Major parts of the digestive system:
Oesophagus:
o…

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Digestion
There are two types of digestion:
1. Physical breakdown
2. Chemical digestion


1. Physical Breakdown:
o Food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth
o Makes it possible to ingest, and increases surface area for chemical digestion
o Churning of food by stomach muscles is also physical…

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2.2 - Carbohydrates ­ Monosaccharides

These are made up of a chain of individual monomers
Repeating monomer units is called a polymer
In carbohydrates, the basic monomer is sugar ­ a saccharide
Therefore:
o A single monomer = monosaccharide
o A pair of monosaccharides = disaccharide
o More than one…

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2.6 Enzyme Action
Enzymes are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts. They alter the rate of a chemical reaction without
undergoing permanent changes.

Enzymes as catalysts:
For a reaction to take place normally, such as:
Sucrose + Water Glucose + Fructose
The sucrose and water molecules must collide with…

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Lock and Key Hypothesis:




In the same way that a lock fits a key precisely, the substrate is thought to fit the enzyme perfectly. This helps
to explain the specific nature of the enzyme.
However: this suggests that the active site is a rigid structure, but scientists have noticed that…

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Enzymes and Reaction Rates:

Temperature
A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of molecules
This means that molecules move around more rapidly, and collide with each other more often
This increases the likelihood of a successful collision taking place
However, a rise in temperature also causes hydrogen and other…

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3.0 Cells and their movement
Cell structure 3.1:

The limitation of a light microscope is that there is a poor resolution. This can be solved by using a beam of electrons,
because they have a shorter wavelength.

Magnification = Size of an image / Size of an object

Units of…

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