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Enzymes & Temperature


Have Natural Kinetic Energy
When Heated this energy increase
Which enables collisions to happen more frequently
Too much heat makes the enzyme vibrate too much and breaks the hydrogen & Ionic
bonds. Denaturing the Enzyme and rapidly decreasing the rate of reaction until it
stops.




Different Enzymes…

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Enzymes & pH

Increasing and decreasing the pH, Increases and decreases the concentration of
Hydrogen Ions around the Enzyme.
This can alter the tertiary structure and change the shape of the active site.
This changes the rate of and enzyme-controlled reaction.




Each enzyme has a different optimum pH.
A pH…

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Enzymes and substrate concentration


The rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction depends on the concentrations of enzyme and
substrate.
As the concentration of either is increased the rate of reaction increases.
For a given enzyme concentration, the rate of reaction increases with increasing substrate
concentration up to a point, above which…

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Enzymes - Inhibitors

An enzyme inhibitor is any substance or molecule that slows down the rate of an
enzyme-controlled reaction, by affecting the enzyme molecule in some way.
Competitive Inhibitors
Have a similar shape to the substrate molecules
They occupy the active site.
Forming an enzyme-inhibitor complex.
This prevents the…

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Enzymes - Coenzymes & Prosthetic Groups


Some enzymes only catalyse reactions id another non-protein substance is present. These
are known as Cofactors.
Coenzymes are small, organic, non-protein molecules that bind for a short period of time to
the enzyme.
They Bind either Just before a reaction takes place, or at…

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Interfering with Enzymes - Poisons & Drugs


Many Deadly Poisons Inhibit or over activate the enzymes.
Potassium Cyanide inhibits cell respiration, It in non-competitive. And decreases the
production of ATP, also due to only being able to respire anaerobically lactic acid builds up in
the blood.
Replacement Enzymes are used…

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