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Ethical Naturalism (
Intuitionism (Moore)
Emotivism (A.J. Ayer verificationism and logical positivism (if they can't be
empirically verified they are meaningless ­ Ayer believed metaphysical ideas
cannot be verified and are therefore meaningless)
Prescriptivism (R.M.Hare)
Analytic statements ­
Synthetic statements ­

Cognitivism Non-Cognitivism
Objective Subjective
Realism Anti-Realism

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Cognitivism ­ reason enables us to discover ethical laws
Non-cognitivism ­ morals are not something which can be discovered
Realism ­
Anti-realism ­
Meta-ethics refers to the analysis of the language used regarding ethical statements
and language; it seeks to understand the meaning of moral judgements.
Normative ethics aims to…

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Emotivism ­ Evaluation


Prescriptivism ­ Evaluation


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