Memory Revision Sheet

HideShow resource information
Preview of Memory Revision Sheet

First 672 words of the document:

memory types of ltm
CODING, CAPACITY & DURATION episodic: Memory for events
multi-store model working memory Semantic: Memory for knowledge
acoustic in STM, semantic in LTM
sensory register: Iconic + echoic model procedural: Memory for automatic
Artificial stimuli stores w/ brief duration but high behaviours
capacity (transfer by attention) central executive: Co-
research on capacity:Jacobs: digit STM: Limited capacity + duration, ordinates slave systems and · Clinical evidence (Clive Wearing
span: 9.3 digits, 7.3 letters allocates resources, limited and HM had damaged episodic
: Miller: 7±2 mainly acoustic coding (transfer by storage
rehearsal) memories but semantic and
span, chunking increases STM Phonological loop: procedural were fine)
capacity ltm: Unlimited capacity + Auditory information - · Neuroimaging evidence (episodic
Lacking validity, Cowan estimated 4 duration, permanent store, mainly and procedural memories
phonological store and
chunks semantic recalled from different parts of
articulatory process
research on duration: Peterson and (maintenance rehearsal) prefrontal cortex)
Peterson: STM <18s w/out rehearsal · Supporting research evidence · Real-life applications (training
· More than one type of STM Visuo-Spatial sketchpad: programme for adults with mild
: Bahrick et al:
(KF) Visual information - visual cognitive impairments)
recognition of faces 90% after 15 yrs,
70% after 47 years · More than one type of cache and inner scribe
Meaningless stimuli, higher external rehearsal (elaborative and Episodic buffer: Integrates
validity maintenance) processing of slave systems and
records order of events
interference retrieval failure · Clinical evidence (KF had poor
auditory memory but good visual
encoding specificity principle: memory: damaged PL but VSS
proactive: Old memories disrupt Tulving: cues most effective if present fine)
new ones at coding and retrieval · Dual-task performance (hard to
RETROACTIVE: New memories disrupt context-dependent forgetting: do 2 visual tasks simultaneously
old ones Godden and Baddeley (deep-sea
effects of similarity: McGeoch & divers) found recall better when
McDonald: similar words created external contexts were identical)
more interference state-dependent forgetting: Carter eyewitness testimony:
· Supporting research evidence
& Cassaday (anti-histamine): recall
better when internal states matched
misleading information
from lab studies (well controlled leading questions: Loftus and
studies show interference effects) · Supporting research evidence Palmer (car speed): estimates were
· Real life studies (Baddeley + (wide range of support: Eysenck affected by leading question (verb)
Hitch supported interference) claims retrieval failure is most
· Artificial material (Lists of words important reason for LTM Post-event discussion: Discussion
are not like everyday memory, may forgetting) with others contaminates EW
overemphasise interference as an · Questioning context effects (no memories: Gabbert et al
explanation) forgetting unless contexts are demonstrated this, calling it memory
dramatically different) conformity (normative social
· Recall vs recognition (absence of influence)
cues affects recall but not
· Real-life application (could help
eyewitness testimony: recognition)
prevent miscarriages of justice +
anxiety ·
police interviewing)
Tasks are artificial (film clips
negative effect: Johnson & Scott reduces stress + anxiety)
(weapon focus): high anxiety knife eyewitness testimony: · Individual differences (older
people may be less accurate
condition led to reduced recall
(tunnel theory) cognitive interview because of own-age bias)
positive effect: Yuille & Cutshall report everything: Include even
(shooting): high anxiety associated unimportant details
with better recall when witnessing
real crime
reinstate context: Picture scene
Yerkes-Dodson Law and recall how you felt (context-
dependent forgetting)
· Weapon focus effect may be reverse order: Recall from the end
irrelevant: Pickel (raw chicken) backwards (disrupts expectations)
showed that it may be surprise not Change perspective: Put yourself in
· Field studies can lack control the role of someone else present
(can't control what happens to (disrupts schema)
witnesses between crime + · Consistently produces more
interview) accurate recall
· Ethical issues (creating anxiety = · Some elements may be more
psychological harm) effective (report everything +
context = best recall)
· Time-consuming




Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »