Medicine Through Time: Overview of Course

An overview of all the different ideas, people and themes that should be studied for the AQA Medicine Through Time course. Created from the SHP Histroy textbook and the schemes of work from the AQA website, it is either a useful last minute revision resource, or more effectively, an outline that can be used to structure revision.

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
Medicine Through Time: Overview
Medicine In The Ancient World
Pre-Historic Medicine
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Caused by spirits and the Trephining to release evil spirits using Lived nomadic lifestyles.
supernatural. simple tools such as flint arrowheads. Pre-historic, so no written records,
thus lack of interest.
No records, no clinical observation, Some more obvious problems solved Discovered in cave paintings,
no links between illnesses and by common sense in practical ways, archaeology, and similar people
treatments. e.g. broken bones set in clay. today (e.g. Aborigines).
Spiritual cures, such as crystals,
charms and chants by medicine men.
NATURAL V. SUPERNATURAL
Egyptian Medicine
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Thought to be caused by the Dissection for forbidden, but Believed in personal cleanliness Very religious peoples, which
gods/evil spirits. Treatment through embalming and mummification lead because of religion, so less disease slowed progress. Also, while they
charms and herbs to drive away to more knowledge of the anatomy was spread. There were designated found herbs to treat problems,
spirits (though some had healing and of uses of herbs. toilets, but no drainage system. they thought that specific herbs
effects). just drove the spirits away better.
Blockage of the channels theory; Wealthy civilizations, so had good Written records on papyrus to be
treated by purging, vomiting and surgical equipment. passed between physicians.
bleeding etc.
NATURAL V. SUPERNATURAL Simple surgery, like removing tumors Trade links with China brought in
many herbs.
Greek Medicine
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Illness caused by the Gods. People Dissection was banned for religious Greeks were athletic and believed in Greeks conquered Egypt, so
`treated' in the temple of Asclepius reasons. However, great thinkers like the importance of health and would have gained their
by pleasing Gods, but were hygienic Aristotle and Hippocrates justified it, fitness. knowledge.
places so healing did take place. so it was allowed in Alexandria, Egypt.
Animals were dissected.

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
Hippocrates championed Aristotle's Since dissection was allowed, many There was an advanced system of Farmers and traders were skilled
theory of the four humours, which skilled philosophers and physicians drainage and water supply at the and successful so it would have
were yellow bile, black bile, phlegm gathered there, meaning more royal place in Knossos, Crete. been easier to gain necessary
and blood. knowledge and intelligence herbs, and to learn from other
manifested. peoples.…read more

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
Acupuncture was used to unblock Some complicated surgeries took
channels and Yin and Yang (the idea place, e.g. the removal of bladder
of balance) was followed. stones.
Herbs were widely used, much trade
between empires.
Medicine in the Middle Ages and
Renaissance
Medieval Western Europe
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Highly religious/superstitious Only simple and external surgery STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT?
(Catholicism was strong in the west).…read more

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
Islamic Medicine in the Middle
Ages
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Some believed disease travelled in Dissection was forbidden, so Arabs were encouraged to look after Religion went hand-in-hand with
the air, invisible and contagious. progress was limited. others, so hospitals were built in science and discovery, in contrast
most cities. to Christianity.…read more

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
wounds with lotion and not burning
oil, tying arteries with ligatures.
Medicine in the Modern Period:
1750 ­ 1900s
18th Century
Disease and Infection Surgery and Anatomy Public Health Other
Inoculation, the old idea from China, Some opposition to vaccination ­
worked for certain diseases. Lady some doctors were careless and
Wortley Montague got the idea actually spread the plague,
accepted. patients didn't understand it,
private doctors changing for
inoculation would lose money etc.…read more

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Anna Ainsworth 11N June 2012
discovered, it was more accepted classes, and the upper and middle
and commonly used. classes didn't want to pay for them.
Florey and Chain built on Fleming's Blood groups were discovered in A second public health act was
work to bring the antibiotic to the 1900 ­ transfusions were more passed in 1875.
world. successful, and blood banks were set
up during and after WW1.…read more

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