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Ions and ionic bonding
Ions are atoms with either extra electrons or missing
A normal atom is called a neutral atom. That term
describes an atom with a number of electrons equal to
the atomic number.
What do you do if you are a sodium (Na) atom? You have
eleven electrons, one too many to have your shell filled.
You need to find another element who will take that
electron away from you. Bring in chlorine (Cl). Chlorine
(Cl) will take that electron away and leave you with 10
electrons inside of two filled shells. Now you are an ion
and missing one electron. You are a sodium ion (Na+).
You have one less electron than your atomic number.
So now you've become a sodium ion (Na+). Now you
have ten electrons. That's the same number as neon
(Ne). But you aren't neon (Ne). Since you're missing an
electron you aren't really a complete sodium (Na) atom
either. You are now something completely new. An ion.
Your whole goal as an atom was to become an atom with
completely filled electron orbitals. Now you have those
filled shells. You are stable.
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Now that you have given up the electron, you are quite
electrically attractive. Other electrically charged atoms
(ions) are now looking at you and seeing a good partner
to bond with. That's where chlorine comes in.
Ionic bonds are just groups of charged ions held
together by electric forces.
Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals.
In ionic bonding, the metal gives its outer electrons to
the nonmetal electrons are transferred in this type of