Periodic trends and transition metals

Brief revision notes on patterns of the chemical world

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  • Created by: saraht
  • Created on: 29-09-11 11:50
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Group I II III IV V VI VII 0
Period 2 Li Be B C (diamond) N O F Ne
Type metal metalloid non-metal
Structure giant metallic giant covalent simple molecular
Bonding metallic covalent van der Waals' + covalent van der Waals'
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Type metal metalloid non-metal
Structure metallic giant covalent simple molecular
Bonding metallic covalent van der Waals' + covalent van der Waals'
Melting
Increases MAX. Decreases
point
Conductivity conductor semi/non-conductor non-conductor
Size of atom Decreases ( protons, nuclear charge, attraction to e cloud, atomic radius)
-
* A regular increase in the number of moles of O atoms that combine with one mole of atoms of each
element. Reaches max. at GROUP V (N) or GROUP VII (Cl).
* Density: same state comparison.
atomic mass, atomic radius and structure affect packing efficiency.
Group I Group II
Body-centred cubic structure Face-centred cubic structure
open lattice close packed structure
space utilisation = 68% space utilisation = 72%
K vs. Ca
Potassium: more empty space; less dense than similarly heavy Ca
Calcium: less empty space; more dense
Oxides (Period 3)
Group I II III IV V VI VII
Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
P4O6 SO2 Cl2O
Oxide(s) Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2
P4O10 SO3 Cl2O7
Bonding ionic mainly ionic (covalent) mainly covalent
Acid/base? basic amphoteric acidic
Important equations:

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Transition metals as catalysts:
Transition metal Substance Reaction
Haber Process
Fe Fe
Contact Process
V V2O5
Manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia
A: Catalytic oxidation of ammonia to NO
B: Oxidation of NO to NO2, N2O4 formed upon
Pt-Rh Pt-Rh
cooling (equilibrium)
C: Reaction of N2O4 w/ water to form nitric acid
Polymerization of CH2=CH2 to form HDPE
Ti Al(C2H5)3 / TiCl4
Hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oil
Ni Ni
Oxidation of CH3CH2OH to CH3CHO
Cu Cu or CuO
2 reasons:
1 Provide surface area for…read more

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Colours of ions:
Oxidation state Name of ion Formula Colour
Vanadium
+5 dioxovanadium(V) VO2+ yellow
+4 oxovanadium(IV) VO2+ blue
+3 vanadium(III) V3+ green
+2 vanadium(II) V2+ violet
Manganese
+2 manganese(II) Mn2+ colourless/pale pink
+3 manganese(III) hydroxide Mn(OH)3 brown
+4 manganese(IV) MnO2 black (**insoluble)
+6 manganate(VI) MnO42- dark green
+7 manganate(VII) MnO4- purple
Transition metals:
Physical properties
high melting points
high densities
good conductors of electricity
hard and rigid good construction materials
smaller atomic radius
scandium and zinc are exceptions
Chemical properties
formation of coloured compounds…read more

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