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Group I II III IV V VI VII 0
Period 2 Li Be B C (diamond) N O F Ne
Type metal metalloid non-metal
Structure giant metallic giant covalent simple molecular
Bonding metallic covalent van der Waals' + covalent van der Waals'
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si P S…

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Transition metals as catalysts:
Transition metal Substance Reaction

Haber Process
Fe Fe



Contact Process
V V2O5



Manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia
A: Catalytic oxidation of ammonia to NO




B: Oxidation of NO to NO2, N2O4 formed upon
Pt-Rh Pt-Rh
cooling (equilibrium)



C: Reaction of N2O4 w/ water to form…

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Colours of ions:
Oxidation state Name of ion Formula Colour
Vanadium
+5 dioxovanadium(V) VO2+ yellow
+4 oxovanadium(IV) VO2+ blue
+3 vanadium(III) V3+ green
+2 vanadium(II) V2+ violet
Manganese
+2 manganese(II) Mn2+ colourless/pale pink
+3 manganese(III) hydroxide Mn(OH)3 brown
+4 manganese(IV) MnO2 black (**insoluble)
+6 manganate(VI) MnO42- dark green
+7 manganate(VII)…

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