Life after death

Life after death

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Life after death
Plato dualist view:
Soul (immortal) distinct from body (mortal).
At end of human life, soul free from body. The goal of a soul is the world of forms, which can
only be indirectly be seen in the physical world.
Real knowledge of the forms comes from the soul instead of learning what the forms are, we
are recollecting them from our soul.
Body distracts the soul from seeking knowledge of the world of forms. True philosopher
avoids any distractions from the body and concentrates on the energy they gain from
recollecting the true forms.
Chariot driver two horses, one is the mind and one is the body. Both horses pull in different
directions but the soul tries to direct them to work in harmony.
Soul= simple and without parts so cannot be divided or split. However there are different
aspects to the soul, i.e. like a simple diamond that has different faces and sides.
Three aspects of the soul when incarnate:
1. Reason searches for the truth and rules the soul.
2. Spirit: aspects which can be trained i.e. aggressiveness, being honourable and emotion.
3. Seeking pleasures for yourself desire for what is necessary (food), desire for things
that are unnecessary (luxury items) and perverted desires. Mercenary because
fulfilment of desires like these require money.
Evidence for different aspects of the soul comes from conflict between aspects of the soul.
Kenny: think of a child throwing a tantrum (not reached age of reason) lacks of harmony in
the soul, also shows that spirit and desire are not directed by reason.
Harmony of the soul is virtue lack of harmony in the soul means that not all aspects of the
soul work together and stops the person obtaining knowledge of the forms.
Injustice is from disharmony in the soul. Many crimes committed are motivated by
inappropriate spirit (attitude) and reasoning.
Vices are wrong as they destroy harmony in the soul and prevent you from seeing the true
forms. Should do good things as it is beneficial to you and not because it brings you new
Argument from knowledge:
Remember forms that out soul previously knew. Idea of equal, noone has seen the form equal
however people use it to describe many things when someone understands it they recognise it
to be true. Ideas within science are long true before we recognise them to be.
Argument from opposites:
Physical world consists of opposites, i.e. black and white, small and big. To talk of living must
be something called death. If death exists it cannot be nothing thus to talk of death existing the
soul must exist. Also supports the idea of reincarnation. Plato: tyrants would be reincarnated
as wolves and drunkards whereas philosophers would see the forms with the Gods.
Geach: what does it mean for the disembodied soul to see Forms, given that seeing is a
process linked to the body and experience through senses?
Is learning really a matter of remembering? For some people it completely new knowledge.
Arguments of opposites really demonstrate existence of a soul? Challenge assumption that
there are opposites.

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If Plato's theory of forms is debatable then undermines the idea of the theory of the soul.
The soul and Aristotle:
Soul= principle of activity and life of the body, gives the body form and is an inseparable unity
with the body.
Body= matter that a living creature is made from.
E.g. Marble is physically a block of marble but has the shape and form of a statue. However
the shape and form can not be separated from the body.
1.…read more

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However been argued that neural activity has no intentionality and mental events are private
and do not have a physical location in the brain. Humans have the ability to make an intention
which is not the same as anyone else's. However NASA has developed sensors which, when
placed on your throat, can detect and recognise words that you silently say to yourself without
voicing aloud.…read more

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Heaven and Hell:
Afterlife: state of existence with God in which people see God facetoface people see God in
a new light. State of fulfilment where all human longings and wishes are to be in the right
relationship with God.
Hell: a state of separation from God and a place of punishment with an aspect of God's
justice.…read more

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Do people really want to live forever?
The world is better understood without the interference of God or an afterlife.…read more


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