Gene Expression Keywords

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Gene Expression Keywords

  • frame shift = right or left by gene mutation; a difference of one or two bases (three bases is no longer a frame shift)
  • mutagenic agents = cause permanent damage at a predictable rate by altering bases, acting as a base or otherwise changing the DNA structure
  • acquired mutation = a mutation arising after fertilisation
  • tumours = collection of abnormal cells which don’t respond to growth-regulating processes, with larger, darker nuclei and different surface antigens on their surface
  • metastasis = spread of malignant tumour de-differentiated cells to form secondary tumours elsewhere
  • TP53 = a tumour-suppressor-gene that regulates P53 protein for apoptosis
  • carcinogenic factors = external factors that have the potential to cause cancer
  • embryonic stem cells = from embryos in the early stages of development
  • umbilical cord stem cells = similar to adult stem cells
  • placental stem cells = develop into specific types of cells
  • adult stem cells = develop into specific organ cells
  • induced pluripotent stem cells = unipotent cells have their genes induced by transcriptional factors to reactivate them to make them pluripotent (capable of self-renewal, less differentiated, medical purposes…)
  • cardiomyocytes = unipotent heart muscle cells that help heart muscles rejuvenate/recover from a heart attack
  • transcriptional factors = proteins that bind to a promoter region (either enhancers or silencers) of complementary DNA bases, (in)activating and controlling the rate of transcription; can act as repressors of transcription by preventing RNA polymerase from binding to target genes
  • oestrogen = lipid-soluble steroid hormone; acts as an activator of transcriptional factors
  • RNA interference = double-stranded molecules that stop mRNA from being translated into proteins by cutting them up or binding to them; siRNA and miRNA
  • acetyl groups = from acetyl coenzyme A; relaxes complexes
  • methyl groups = attract proteins that condense complexes and inducing deacetylation
  • epigenome = cellular memory; a build-up of tags over a lifetime, starting from foetus’ cells
  • colorectal cancer = patients have less DNA methylation, causing activation of genes -> cells that may be abnormal
  • epigenetic therapy = counteract against epigenetic changes using drugs to reverse acetylation/methylation levels
  • bioinformatics = rapid collecting and analysing of complex biological data with computers via algorithms 
  • Whole Genome Shotgun = technique for rapid sequencing by cutting DNA into small sections, to assemble and compare genomes
  • single-nucleotide-polymorphrisms (SNPs) = single-base variations of DNA that are associated with disease/disorders
  • cellular proteome = all of the…


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