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Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg
Purpose- variation of attachment Results-
behaviours in babies due to culture. ·UK had highest percentage of Secure.
Procedure- didn't conduct studies ·China had lowest percentage of Secure.
themselves. Meta-analysis of results of ·All countries had highest percentage of Secure.
the Strange Situation from different ·West Germany had 35% Insecure Avoidant,
countries. may be due to the fact that German parents
encourage independence.
·Israel had 29% Insecure Resistant, may be
Strong Western Bias as majority of down to the kibbutz and the idea that the
studies took place in the USA. children have never seen a stranger before.
·Japan had 27% Insecure Resistant, may be
Imposed Etic, strange situation may
down to the fact many infants do not leave
not have been a good measuring tool as
mothers until 12 months old.
technique was developed in a singular
culture. Different Culture Types-
Involves a large population and Individualist Culture, people make own
therefore results can be generalised. decisions and take own responsibility e.g. UK.
Don't know if studies were carried out Collectivist Culture, group/society makes
in the same way for each study, results person's decision and takes responsibility for
may not be comparable. that person e.g. China.…read more

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Robertson and Robertson ­ PDD Model
Procedure- observed child of 17 Results-
months who experienced bond Found 3 stages in child's response to separation.
disruption. Spent time in residential
nursery whilst mother in hospital. · Protest ­ trying to gain attention and form
attachments with nurses. Showed outward
Evaluation- distress.
·Despair ­ crying a lot, refusing food, difficulty
Films were very influential and led to sleeping.
changes in hospital policy. ·Detachment ­ withdrawal, little interest in
· Visiting hours changed other people, ignored mother on return and
· Nurses shifts changed didn't allow her to comfort.
Not all children will respond in the Evaluation of Case Study Method:
same way as there are individual
differences. Securely attached children High ecological validity
will cope better than an insecurely Ethical
attached child. Gains a lot of rich data
Can not extrapolate to entire population
May be retrospective
Variables aren't completely controlled…read more

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Bowlby's 44 Thieves
Purpose- to test the maternal Findings-
deprivation hypothesis. · 36% of thieves diagnosed as affectionless
Participants- 88 children aged 5-16. psychopaths.
· 86% of the affectionless psychopaths (12 out
Procedure- of 14) experienced frequent early separations.
Experimental group = 44 thieves. · 17% (5 out of 30) of the thieves that weren't
Control group = 44 not committed psychopaths experienced early separations.
crimes. ·4% of non-thieves had experienced early
Interviews to obtain information on pps separations, none diagnosed as affectionless
early lives, especially any separations. psychopaths.
Conclusions- Criticisms-
The data suggests a link between early Correlation does not prove cause, another
separation and later social + emotional factor may have influenced the outcome.
maladjustment. Unreliable data as data was recalled
In most severe form lack of continuous retrospectively and parents may not have
maternal care = affectionless accurately recalled separations during infancy.
psychopathy. Less sever form = Answers may have been subject to social
antisocial behaviour e.g. theft. desirability bias.
Findings support maternal deprivation
hypothesis.…read more

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Goldfarb's Institutionalisation Study
Purpose- to see how institutionalisation Results-
affects child development. At age 3 institution group:
· unable to form relationships
· lack of guilt
Procedure- · craving for affection
Institution Group = raised in children's At age 10-14 institution group:
home until 3 yrs 6 months, then · restless
fostered. · unpopular
Fostered Group = fostered straight · problems concentration
from birth. · low IQ of 72, 23 points lower than fostered
2 groups of 15 children. Independent group.
Groups. Natural Experiment.
At age 3- social ability and behaviour Evaluation-
measured. High ecological validity- natural setting,
At age 10-14- IQ, popularity, behaviour, behaviour is meaningful in real life.
social ability measured. Individual Differences in each group- may have
affected how children acted or how intelligent they
Conclusion ­ were.
Inability to form attachment with 1 Not a true experiment ­ cause and effect cannot
person during 1st 3 years led to social be claimed. No control over extraneous variables.
and intellectual retardation.…read more

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Campbell et al Daycare Study
to see how daycare affects social development in children.
Followed a group of children receiving different types of daycare and compared their
development with children cared for at home. Followed up at ages 2½, 3½, 6½, 8½ and 15.
· Children >3½ in daycare were less socially competent.
·Children with more days but of shorter length were more socially competent.
Time spent in daycare- over long days led to tired and frustrated children. More but
shorter days meant increased contact time without tiredness.
Quality of daycare- those attending high quality daycare before 3½ were more socially
Development of Social Skills ­ key period is 3½.…read more


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