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Slide 1

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Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Purpose- to investigate different Behaviours Measured-
attachment types between children 1.) Use of mother as secure base
and caregivers, especially mothers. 2.) Seperation Anxiety/Distress
Participants- infants aged 12-18 3.) Reunion Behaviour
months. 4.) Stranger Anxiety
Evaluation- Secure
1.) Used mother as safe base to explore
Ainsworth said attachment was down to 2.) Distressed when mother left
caregiver. 3.) Happy when reunited, easy to calm
Sensitive and Responsive = Secure 4.) Wary of the stranger
Impatient and Neglecting = Avoidant
Mixed Signals = Resistant Insecure Resistant
1.) Clings to mother, won't explore
Kagan said Strange Situation measured 2.) Very distressed when mother leaves
temperament of baby. 3.) Seeks and rejects attention, hard to calm, angry
Secure = easy 4.) Upset by stranger's presence
Avoidant = slow to warm up Insecure Avoidant
Resistant = difficult 1.) Doesn't orientate towards mother
2.) Not outwardly distressed when mother left
Ethics ­ deliberately exposing children to 3.) No outward response when reunited
stress is questionable 4.) No outward response to the stranger…read more

Slide 2

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Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg
Purpose- variation of attachment Results-
behaviours in babies due to culture. ·UK had highest percentage of Secure.
Procedure- didn't conduct studies ·China had lowest percentage of Secure.
themselves. Meta-analysis of results of ·All countries had highest percentage of Secure.
the Strange Situation from different ·West Germany had 35% Insecure Avoidant,
countries. may be due to the fact that German parents
encourage independence.
·Israel had 29% Insecure Resistant, may be
Strong Western Bias as majority of down to the kibbutz and the idea that the
studies took place in the USA. children have never seen a stranger before.
·Japan had 27% Insecure Resistant, may be
Imposed Etic, strange situation may
down to the fact many infants do not leave
not have been a good measuring tool as
mothers until 12 months old.
technique was developed in a singular
culture. Different Culture Types-
Involves a large population and Individualist Culture, people make own
therefore results can be generalised. decisions and take own responsibility e.g. UK.
Don't know if studies were carried out Collectivist Culture, group/society makes
in the same way for each study, results person's decision and takes responsibility for
may not be comparable. that person e.g. China.…read more

Slide 3

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Robertson and Robertson ­ PDD Model
Procedure- observed child of 17 Results-
months who experienced bond Found 3 stages in child's response to separation.
disruption. Spent time in residential
nursery whilst mother in hospital. · Protest ­ trying to gain attention and form
attachments with nurses. Showed outward
Evaluation- distress.
·Despair ­ crying a lot, refusing food, difficulty
Films were very influential and led to sleeping.
changes in hospital policy. ·Detachment ­ withdrawal, little interest in
· Visiting hours changed other people, ignored mother on return and
· Nurses shifts changed didn't allow her to comfort.
Not all children will respond in the Evaluation of Case Study Method:
same way as there are individual
differences. Securely attached children High ecological validity
will cope better than an insecurely Ethical
attached child. Gains a lot of rich data
Can not extrapolate to entire population
May be retrospective
Variables aren't completely controlled…read more

Slide 4

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Bowlby's 44 Thieves
Purpose- to test the maternal Findings-
deprivation hypothesis. · 36% of thieves diagnosed as affectionless
Participants- 88 children aged 5-16. psychopaths.
· 86% of the affectionless psychopaths (12 out
Procedure- of 14) experienced frequent early separations.
Experimental group = 44 thieves. · 17% (5 out of 30) of the thieves that weren't
Control group = 44 not committed psychopaths experienced early separations.
crimes. ·4% of non-thieves had experienced early
Interviews to obtain information on pps separations, none diagnosed as affectionless
early lives, especially any separations. psychopaths.
Conclusions- Criticisms-
The data suggests a link between early Correlation does not prove cause, another
separation and later social + emotional factor may have influenced the outcome.
maladjustment. Unreliable data as data was recalled
In most severe form lack of continuous retrospectively and parents may not have
maternal care = affectionless accurately recalled separations during infancy.
psychopathy. Less sever form = Answers may have been subject to social
antisocial behaviour e.g. theft. desirability bias.
Findings support maternal deprivation
hypothesis.…read more

Slide 5

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Goldfarb's Institutionalisation Study
Purpose- to see how institutionalisation Results-
affects child development. At age 3 institution group:
· unable to form relationships
· lack of guilt
Procedure- · craving for affection
Institution Group = raised in children's At age 10-14 institution group:
home until 3 yrs 6 months, then · restless
fostered. · unpopular
Fostered Group = fostered straight · problems concentration
from birth. · low IQ of 72, 23 points lower than fostered
2 groups of 15 children. Independent group.
Groups. Natural Experiment.
At age 3- social ability and behaviour Evaluation-
measured. High ecological validity- natural setting,
At age 10-14- IQ, popularity, behaviour, behaviour is meaningful in real life.
social ability measured. Individual Differences in each group- may have
affected how children acted or how intelligent they
Conclusion ­ were.
Inability to form attachment with 1 Not a true experiment ­ cause and effect cannot
person during 1st 3 years led to social be claimed. No control over extraneous variables.
and intellectual retardation.…read more

Slide 6

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Campbell et al Daycare Study
to see how daycare affects social development in children.
Followed a group of children receiving different types of daycare and compared their
development with children cared for at home. Followed up at ages 2½, 3½, 6½, 8½ and 15.
· Children >3½ in daycare were less socially competent.
·Children with more days but of shorter length were more socially competent.
Time spent in daycare- over long days led to tired and frustrated children. More but
shorter days meant increased contact time without tiredness.
Quality of daycare- those attending high quality daycare before 3½ were more socially
Development of Social Skills ­ key period is 3½.…read more


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