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Psychology Revision.


Definition: Stress as a response to something in the environment

Stress as a stimulus (stressor) in the environment

Stress as a lack of fit between perceived demands and perceived ability to cope with those
demands. I.e. how much stress individuals experience lies in their perception of…

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Alarm- presence of a stressor is registered. Hypothalamic-pituitary system secretes ACTH,
which releases corticosteroids from adrenal cortex, while sympathetic ANS activation leads
to increased adrenaline and noradrenaline being secreted from adrenal medulla. Ready for
fight or flight.
Resistance- body's stress response is fully activated and coping with stressor. Things seem…

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Short-term stressors and the immune system: - psychological stress can adversely affect many
aspects of immune function; even brief periods of stress have a significant suppression of immune
functioning. Includes a decline in the ability of white blood cells to perform their function in fighting
antigens and a decrease in…

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stressed than men. (84% vs. 76%). People under the age of 65 more likely to report stress than
older people. (82% vs. 70%).

However, does not tell us how these groups coped with stress or how stress impacts on their
immune-system functioning.


What is a stressor?

Any stimulus…

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A reduction in the activation and efficiency of the immune system.

How did Keicolt-glaser and colleagues measure activity of the immune system?

They took blood tests before and after the stressful period and measured the natural killer cell

Stress in everyday life

Life changes and Daily hassles.

Life changes-The…

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Stone et al.- married couples completed daily checklists of events over three months. Number of
undesirable events experienced increased 3/4 days before onset of illness. Desirable events
decreased over same period. As the undesirable events preceded onset of illness, this suggests that
they might have been responsible for stress-related illness.…

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Delongis et al. - compared hassles scores with life events and found that although both
correlated significantly with health status, the association for hassles was greater. No statistical
relationship found between uplifts and health outcomes.

Bouteyre et al. established significant relationship between daily hassles and mental health of
students during…

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guidelines separating one role from another, or ones that are contradictory. Also contributes to
other sources of work-place stress such as relations with co-workers and lack of control.

Sources of stress affect organisations as well as individuals as it can lead to physical and psychological
consequences that can affect productivity…

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but didn't have confidence in their ability to handle the demands of their role or who blamed
themselves for negative outcomes were most likely to experience stress. This shows that
increasing job control can be harmful for individuals .
Individual differences- research has shown that other cultures take on the…

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Commitment- the sense of purpose and involvement in the world around you. The world is
seen as something you engage with. Committed people tend to resist giving up in times of
Challenge- those who possess a challenge orientation do not seek comfort and security as
their main goals but…


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