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Kant was a deontological thinker born in 1724
Kant places the responsibility for making moral decisions with the individual and not
with an external authority.
For Kant we have to be free to do our duty
If people are not free to do their duty then the possibility of making a moral choice is
To act morally is to do ones duty and to do ones duty is to obey the moral law
We should not be side tracked by feelings and inclination and we should not act out of
love and compassion
If we do something because we know it is our duty to do so and duty is a key element
in our decision to act then we know we have done the right thing
Using reason and individual can work out what ones duty is.
Individual must have the courage to apply his or her powers of reason
Ability to rationalise and reason is what distinguishes us from animals
For Kant, this gives humans their value and reason
Kant believed there was a common moral law within us and we must use our reason to
know what is right and wrong
"Ought implies can"
For Kant "ought implies can"
If we feel it is our duty to do something then that something must be possible
Something that is impossible cannot be a moral option
Kant says to have good will is to do ones duty.
The will within you is to do your duty
To do ones duty is to perform actions that are morally required and avoid actions that
are morally forbidden
The good will chooses duty for duty's sakes
Duty is what makes the good will good.
All humans seeks an ultimate end called the "Summum Bonum"
The reward of this supreme happiness is given to those who act within accordance to
their moral duty
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It is not possible to achieve this in one lifetime so Kant deduced that we must have
immortal souls and that God must therefore exist
Kant believed in an afterlife and that God must exist to provide an opportunity to
reach this supreme good where human virtue and happiness are united
for Kant morality lead to god
A priori synthetic
Kant argued that ethical theories are a priori synthetic
This is because it comes from pure reason but also may be right or wrong
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Moral behaviour must be in the direction towards an ideal society "the kingdom of ends"
not against it.
Modern day philosopher
Due to some weaknesses from Kant's ethical theory W.D Ross came up with certain
He argued that some exceptions should be allowed to Kant's duties.
"prima facie duties"
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