June 2014 past paper answers

past paper questions that i have done i got 19 out of 21 on both the 21 markers and then 11 out of 15 on the methods this is because i wrote too much with too little detail

HideShow resource information
Preview of June 2014 past paper answers

First 650 words of the document:

Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations for the types and
patterns of green crime.
Traditional criminology is a definition that is used to distinguish crime that breaks the law and goes
against our traditional views within society. Whereas green crime uses a different definition to
distinguish what is green crime and when it occurs. In some cases of Green Crime laws are not broken
(Item A), thus meaning that it wouldn't be classed as a crime according to the traditional definition of
crime. Green crime class crime as anything that does harm to or damages the natural environment.
The type of crime that is encompassed by green crime doesn't always observe national boundaries
(Item A) for example the disaster that happened at Chernobyl. "There are many different types of
green crime, all of which are related to human activities" (item A).
White argues that nation states and transnational corporations (TNCs) adopt what he referred to as
an anthropocentric or a human- centered view to harm. This view assumes that humans have the
right to dominance over the natural environment and exploit the environment for economic gain. An
example of the environment being exploited for economic gain is the Karakorum Mountains in
Pakistan, the trees are being cut down and used by the local guides to cook food on whilst trekking up
the mountains with tourists. Tourists trekking up the mountains brings in money for the local people
and tour companies. By doing this it destroys the natural environment as well as disrupting
ecosystems that live within this area. Thus suggesting a pattern of green crime occurring in order for
countries and individuals to gain economically.
White contrasts the anthropocentric view with an ecocentric view that sees humans and the
environment as independent, so the environmental harm also harms humans. This view put forward
by White sees both humans and the environment liable to exploitation, particularly by global
capitalism. In most cases green criminology adopts an ecocentric view as the basis for judging
environmental harm.
Nigel South argues that there are two different types of green crime primary and secondary green
crimes. Primary crimes result directly from the destruction and degradation of the earth's resources.
Whereas secondary crime is crime that grows out of the flouting of the rules aimed at preventing or
regulating environmental disasters.
South identifies four different types of green crime. The first type of primary green crime that is
identified by South is crimes of air pollution. The burning of fossil fuels for industry and/or transport
add around 3 billion tons of carbon to the atmosphere each year and our carbon emissions are
growing at 2% per annum, thus suggesting we are contributing to global warning. The potential
culprits of this green crime are the government, businesses and us as consumers.
The second type of primary green type discussed by South is crimes of deforestation. This was a
particularly problem between 1960 and 1990 where one fifth of the world's rainforests were
destroyed by illegal logging. In the Amazon the forests were destroyed and cut down to rear beef
cattle for export, thus increasing the profit the country could make. Another example is in the Andes
the war on drugs has led to pesticides being sprayed to kill coca and marijuana plants, but as a result
of this it has led to a green crime being committed. This is because the pesticides are destroying food
crops, contaminating drinking water and causing illness. The criminals that re responsible for
committing this green crime include: the state, who can profit from the forest destruction, cattle
ranchers and logging companies.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The third type of primary green crime identified by South is the crimes of species decline and animal
rights. 50 species a day are becoming extinct, this may be due to the destruction of the forest, the
pollution of our water ways or many of the other problems that people have caused. If these crimes
are not stopped or serious reduced in numbers more and more species will become extinct.
The final type of primary green crime identified by South was the pollution of water.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the relationship
between social class and crime.
Through the portrayal of crime stats it appears to the reader that some classes exhibit higher rates of
criminal activity (Item A). In most cases the social class that is portrayed badly in crime statistics is the
working class and the underclass. There are many problems associated with the portrayal and
collection of the crime statistics that misrepresent the working class.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Another approach to the stain that is felt within society is
rebellion, this occurs when you want to replace the views held by the American Dream, as you are
unable to achieve them. One positive aspect of Merton's theory us that it recognizes the cause of
crime as the American Dream and the class system that means that people can't achieve equally. One
criticism is that it may only be relevant to American society.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the strengths and limitations of using
unstructured interviews as a means of investigating the public's perceptions of crime and fear of
Unstructured interviews are interviews that contain open- ended questions, where the person that is
being asked the question has the freedom to talk about whatever they feel appropriate to the
question, they also allow the researcher to build upon the answer that was given by the interviewee.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Interpretivists is that Open- ended questions allow interviewees to freely
express themselves and talk about what they would like to express.
Positivist reject unstructured interviews as a good approach for research as they lack objectivity,
reliability and representativeness.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Assess the contribution of feminist perspectives to our understanding of society.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all resources »