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Instantaneous- induced dipole
When (two) covalently bonded atoms have
the same electronegativity however randomly
the electron density increases over one of the
atoms
This then causes the bond to become
momentarily polarised, this then induces a
dipole into adjacent molecules as electrons
are attracted to the positive end and repelled
by the negative…read more

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Permanent dipole-permanent
dipole
This is where one of the atoms in a covalent bond
is more electronegative than the other
This then causes the electrons to be permanently
more dense over this atom
This produces partial negative and positive
charges in the covalent bond permanently
Then this attracts other molecules with dipoles as
opposites attract…read more

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Permanent dipole-Induced dipole
This is where one molecule which has a
permanent dipole induces a dipole into a non
polar molecule
This is because electrons in the non polar
molecule are attracted to a partial positive
charge and repelled by a partial negative
This then induces a dipole into the non-polar
molecule…read more

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Hydrogen bonds
This is where there is a highly electronegative molecule is
attached to electropositive molecule within a covalent bond
This electronegative molecule then attracts the electrons
more so the electron density is higher so it gains a partial
negative charge
This electronegative molecule must have a lone pair of
electrons on the atom such as O, N & F
These bonds are much stronger than any other type of
intermolecular bonds
Then the opposite partial charges attract on adjacent
molecules
Hydrogen bonds only form in straight lines so if a diagram of
these have to be drawn this is important…read more

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Differences between permanent
dipole-permanent dipole and
hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds must have a atom with a
lone pair of electrons attached to hydrogen
Also one of the atoms must be highly
electronegative
The weaker the intermolecular bond the less
energy required to break this bond…read more

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