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The Oceans- Notes

Storing Carbon Dioxide

o The solubility of gases decreases as temperature increases; this is illustrated in the following graph
which shows the solubility of carbon dioxide in water:

o There is also a relationship between pressure and the solubility of gas; the higher the pressure, the

Page 2

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The Oceans- Notes

o The aborption of CO2 into the oceans is a continual process; the surface water that is rich in
CO2 sinks to the deeps of the oceans, where it is stored for hundreds of years.

Dissolving calcium carbonate

The overall equations listed previously can be combined into…

Page 3

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The Oceans- Notes

o There are no shells on the ocean floor; they have all dissolved by the time they reach the low
temperatures and high pressures.
o This means that the calcium carbonate cliffs must have formed in shallow seas; it is likely that the
water was also warm…

Page 4

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The Oceans- Notes

o For example, in Group I, the atomic radii of the atoms increases down the group as more electrons
are added:

o Moving across a period, the atomic radii decreases even though extra electrons are being added.
o This is because the number of protons increases along…

Page 5

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The Oceans- Notes

o Removing an electron results in an ion that is smaller than the atom. Removing more than one
electron has an even greater effect.
o The general rule is:

r2+ < r+ < r(atom) < r- < r2-

o This effect of charge can be illustrated in…

Page 6

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The Oceans- Notes

o Hydration makes small, strongly attractive ions behave as if they are larger and less attracting.

Solubility Products

o Nothing is insoluble; there will always be some substance dissolved in solution, no matter how
o The increase in entropy associated with dissolving ensures that this is…

Page 7

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The Oceans- Notes

o As the solution is saturated, adding more solid will not push the position of equilibrium any further
to the right; therefore the solid can be neglected from the expression for the equilibrium constant;
this gives the following equilibrium constant:

Ksp = [Ca2+(aq)] [CO32-(aq)]

o This is…

Page 8

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The Oceans- Notes

o The Ksp value can also be used to determine the how other ions in the solution can affect the
solubility of a sparingly soluble compound, for example, how adding extra Cl- or Ag+ ions will effect
the concentrations.
o Imagine that we added some silver chloride…

Page 9

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The Oceans- Notes

o Forming a lattice from gaseous ions is always an exothermic process, and so Hle is always
o In order for an ionic substance to dissolve in water, the ions in the lattice must be separated; this
requires energy to overcome the electrical attraction between the…

Page 10

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The Oceans- Notes

o The smaller the ion and the higher its charge, the more water molecules it attracts.
o The strength of the attractions between the ions and the water molecules is measured by the
enthalpy of hydration ( Hhyd).
o The enthalpy change of hydration is defined as…




do you have any for medicine by design 

thank you for the notes what did u get for chemistry ?

Suhel Haque


Medicine by Design? 

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