covalent bonding

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  • covalent bonding
    • covalent bonds
      • shared pair of e-
      • between two non-metals
      • coordinate (dative) bonds
        • bond contains a shared pair of e- both supplied by the same atom
    • bond polarity
      • electronegativity
        • the ability of an atom to attract e- in a  covalent bond
    • macromolecular (giant covalent)
      • graphite
        • C atoms arranged in sheets of flat hexagons covalently bonded with 3 bonds each.
        • 4th C atom is delocalised
          • e- can move through layers and so can conduct electricity
        • weak bonds between layers
          • layers can slide over each other
        • strong bonds
          • high melting point
      • diamond
        • each C atom is bonded to 4 other C atoms in a tetrahedra shape
        • strong covalent bonds
          • high melting point
          • really hard
          • vibrations travel through lattice and os can conduct heat
          • no delocalised e- so no electricity conduction
    • molecular
      • small molecules held together by weak intermolecular forces
        • when it changes state the covalent bonds aren't broken - the intermolecular force are
          • atoms held together by strong covalent bonds
          • low melting point
          • doesn't conduct electricity
      • atoms held together by strong covalent bonds
      • e.g.iodine


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