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Biology Revision
Contents
Section 1 - The Nature and Variety of Living Organisms
The Five Kingdoms
Plants
Animals
Fungi
Bacteria
Protoctists
Viruses
Section 2 ­ Structures and Functions in Living Organisms
Levels of Organisation
Cell Structure
Biological Molecules
Food Tests
Food Groups
Enzymes
Practical on effect of temperature on…

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Excretion in Humans
Coordination and Response
Coordination in Humans:
Coordination in Plants
Section 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
Reproduction
Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Reproduction in Humans
Inheritance
Cell Division
Inheritance
Variation
Section 4: Ecology and the Environment
The organism in the environment:
Feeding relationships
Cycles within ecosystems
The water cycle…

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Section 1 - The Nature and Variety of Living Organisms
Characteristics of living organisms:

Movement
Respiration
Sensitivity
Growth
Reproduction
Excretion
Nutrition


Also, all living things contain nucleic acids, and undertake homeostasis, and all living things can die.

The Five Kingdoms

Plants
Multicellular
Contain chloroplasts and photosynthesise
Cellulose cell walls…

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Bacteria
Single cellular
Have bacterial chromosomes
Photosynthetic, or saprophytes
Examples include Lactobacillius
bulgaricus (rod shaped) and
Pneumococcus (cone shaped).




Protoctists
Mostly single cellular
Some animal like (amoebae)
Some plant like (chlorella)

Examples include seaweeds

Viruses
Not made of cells
Parasitic
Infect everything
The envelope gains entry into hosts, the…

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Section 2 ­ Structures and Functions in Living Organisms
Levels of Organisation
Organelles ­ intracellular structures

Cells ­ basic structural unit from which all organisms are made

Tissues ­ group of specialised cells

Organ ­ collection of tissues which carry out specific functions

Organ Systems ­ a group of…

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Organelle Animal Cells Plant Cells Function
Chloroplasts NO YES Site of photosynthesis
Cell Wall NO YES Made of cellulose and makes the cell turgid
Sap Vacuole NO YES Acts as a store of water or waste products
Chlorophyll NO (in chloroplasts) Needed for photosynthesis
Cytoplasm YES YES Site of…

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Size 50m 150 m
Shape No fixed shape Rectangular


Biological Molecules

Food Tests
Starch is tested for using Iodine solution. Reddish-brown iodine solution is added and if starch is
present it turns blue-black. Glucose is tested for using Benedict's test. Blue Benedict's solution is
added to aqueous glucose and…

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Practical on effect of temperature on enzymes:
Catalase breaks down Hydrogen Peroxide into Water and Oxygen.

2H2O2 O2 + 2H2O

This enzyme is found in potatoes. When potato chips are placed in peroxide, O2 is produced.
Therefore, the rate of reaction is proportional to the volume of O2 given…

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Nutrition

Nutrition in Flowering Plants
Plants generate their own food by photosynthesis.

Carbon Dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose

6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6

The glucose is used for respiration, stored as starch, and used to make cellulose, fats, and oils.

The rate of photosynthesis can be increased…

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Stoma Allow gas exchange.
Guard Cells Allow the stoma to open and close.
Xylem Brings water to the leaf.


Plants also need some specific minerals:

Nitrates for amino acids
Magnesium for chlorophyll
Potassium for cell membranes
Phosphate for DNA

A practical for showing how photosynthesis is affected by rate-limiting…

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Hannah

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thank you!

liverpool7867

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thanks

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