IGCSE BIology Full Syllabus Notes

Attached are Notes on the full course for Edexcel IGCSE Biology (Triple Science Spec.)

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  • Created on: 08-05-12 09:46
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Biology Revision
Section 1 - The Nature and Variety of Living Organisms
The Five Kingdoms
Section 2 ­ Structures and Functions in Living Organisms
Levels of Organisation
Cell Structure
Biological Molecules
Food Tests
Food Groups
Practical on effect of temperature on enzymes:
Movement of Substances in and out of Cells
Nutrition in Flowering Plants
Nutrition in Humans
Gas Exchange
Gas Exchange in Plants:
Gas Exchange in Humans
Transport in Flowering Plants
Transport in Humans
Excretion in Plants

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Excretion in Humans
Coordination and Response
Coordination in Humans:
Coordination in Plants
Section 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Reproduction in Humans
Cell Division
Section 4: Ecology and the Environment
The organism in the environment:
Feeding relationships
Cycles within ecosystems
The water cycle
The carbon cycle
The nitrogen cycle
Human influence on the environment
Acid rain
The greenhouse effect
Section 5: the Use of Biological Resources
Food production:
Using crop plants
Using microorganisms:
Fish Farming
Selective Breeding…read more

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Section 1 - The Nature and Variety of Living Organisms
Characteristics of living organisms:
Also, all living things contain nucleic acids, and undertake homeostasis, and all living things can die.
The Five Kingdoms
Contain chloroplasts and photosynthesise
Cellulose cell walls
Store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose.
Examples are flowering (maize), and legumes (peas).
No cell walls
Nervous system
Store carbohydrate as glyocogen
Examples are mammals (humans) and insects (housefly).…read more

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Single cellular
Have bacterial chromosomes
Photosynthetic, or saprophytes
Examples include Lactobacillius
bulgaricus (rod shaped) and
Pneumococcus (cone shaped).
Mostly single cellular
Some animal like (amoebae)
Some plant like (chlorella)
Examples include seaweeds
Not made of cells
Infect everything
The envelope gains entry into hosts, the capsid is made of protein
and gives the virus structure, and the plasmid contains the code
for making new viruses. Examples include Tobacco Mosaic
Virus and Influenza.…read more

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Section 2 ­ Structures and Functions in Living Organisms
Levels of Organisation
Organelles ­ intracellular structures
Cells ­ basic structural unit from which all organisms are made
Tissues ­ group of specialised cells
Organ ­ collection of tissues which carry out specific functions
Organ Systems ­ a group of organs.…read more

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Organelle Animal Cells Plant Cells Function
Chloroplasts NO YES Site of photosynthesis
Cell Wall NO YES Made of cellulose and makes the cell turgid
Sap Vacuole NO YES Acts as a store of water or waste products
Chlorophyll NO (in chloroplasts) Needed for photosynthesis
Cytoplasm YES YES Site of chemical reactions in the cell
Cell Membrane YES YES Selectively permeable, and controls what enters/leaves
Nucleus YES YES Contains nucleic acids (DNA)
Mitochondria YES YES Site of respiration
6…read more

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Size 50m 150 m
Shape No fixed shape Rectangular
Biological Molecules
Food Tests
Starch is tested for using Iodine solution. Reddish-brown iodine solution is added and if starch is
present it turns blue-black. Glucose is tested for using Benedict's test. Blue Benedict's solution is
added to aqueous glucose and heated, and if glucose is present it turns brick-red.
Food Groups
Food Group Function
Lipids (fats and oils) Long-term energy store. Protection and insulation. Made from one glycerol
molecule, three fatty acid molecules.…read more

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Practical on effect of temperature on enzymes:
Catalase breaks down Hydrogen Peroxide into Water and Oxygen.
2H2O2 O2 + 2H2O
This enzyme is found in potatoes. When potato chips are placed in peroxide, O2 is produced.
Therefore, the rate of reaction is proportional to the volume of O2 given off.
Movement of Substances in and out of Cells
Diffusion ­ the net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration down a
concentration gradient.…read more

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Nutrition in Flowering Plants
Plants generate their own food by photosynthesis.
Carbon Dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose
6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6
The glucose is used for respiration, stored as starch, and used to make cellulose, fats, and oils.
The rate of photosynthesis can be increased by adding more CO2, more water, more light, or heating
it at the optimum temperature. At a certain point however, increasing one factor will have no effect,
due to a new limiting
factor.…read more

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Stoma Allow gas exchange.
Guard Cells Allow the stoma to open and close.
Xylem Brings water to the leaf.
Plants also need some specific minerals:
Nitrates for amino acids
Magnesium for chlorophyll
Potassium for cell membranes
Phosphate for DNA
A practical for showing how photosynthesis is affected by rate-limiting factors is by using elodea
(pond weed) and counting the oxygen bubbles it produces.…read more



thank you!



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