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Pleistocene and current ice coverage
A glacier is a mass of ice that moves very slowly downhill. They are found at high altitude across the globe, even on high
mountains close to the equator, and at lower altitude in high latitudes close to the North and South Poles. The formation…

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Ablation-outputs from the glacier budget, such as melting
Snout-the bottom of the glacier

Weathering and glacial erosion

The valley sides above the glacier are affected by freeze-thaw.
The predominant process is freeze-thaw weathering.
Freeze-thaw describes the action of glacial meltwater on joints, cracks and hollows in rock.
When the…

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Distinctive landforms created by glacial
Corries, arêtes, pyramidal peaks, glacial trough, truncated spurs, hanging valleys and
ribbon lakes

Corries, are often the starting point of a glacier. The diagram below shows the formation of a corrie.

Snowflakes collect in a hollow. As more snow falls, the snow is…

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Snow acts plastic again-malleable.

Steep back wall
Raised lip
Over-deepened hollow
Once ice has gone it leaves a lake-tarn

An arête is a knife-edge ridge.
It is formed when two neighbouring corries run back to back.
As each glacier erodes either side of the ridge, the edge becomes…

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aretes radiate outwards

Glacial Trough
Glaciers cut distinctive U-shaped valleys with a flat floor and steep sides.
The glacier widens, steepens, deepens and smoothes V-shaped river valleys, eg Great Langdale Valley in the Lake
The images below show the difference between a U-shaped valley and a V-shaped valley.

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They form in hollows where softer rock was eroded more than the surrounding hard rock
E.g. Windermere, Lake District
Can be caused by compressing flow (thickening ice resulting in greater potential erosion)
It can also be caused by an area of relatively less resistant rock.

Distinctive landforms created by glacial…

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Drumlins are elongated hills of glacial deposits.
They can be 1 km long and 500 metres wide, often occurring in groups.
A group of drumlins is called a drumlin swarm or a basket of eggs, eg Vale of Eden.
These would have been part of the debris that was…

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They usually form in groups
E.g. Vale of Eden, Cumbria

Loose snow avalanche
Lots of freshly fallen snow, powdery, not dense, not compressed.
Found on a STEEP slope
A slight change can cause the snow to move; then gathers snow as momentum picks upp.
Steep hill-gravitation will pull it…

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Major temperature changes, rapid wind speed and man-made influences, such as the weight of two skiers, often
trigger avalanches before they would naturally occur.

Glacial retreat is a threat to economies relying
on tourism
Social Economic Environmental
Some of the higher level ski resorts
could become more profitable
Early season…

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yo bro

that is awse it got a U



really helpful thanks

Mr A Gibson


Fabulous set of notes, one of the best I've seen on the site. Really detailed, well put together and well presented. A document you can't afford not print out for your notes!



Great notes! Thanks :)

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